Table of Contents
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Table of Contents
As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on April 
2
1
, 2022
Registration
No. 333-263798
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
AMENDMENT NO. 1
TO
FORM
 
S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
 

RIGETTI COMPUTING, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
7374
 
88-0950636
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
775 Heinz Avenue
Berkeley, CA 94710
(510)
210-5550
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offfices)
 
 
Rick Danis
General Counsel
Rigetti Computing, Inc.
775 Heinz Avenue
Berkeley, CA 94710
(510)
210-5550
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
 
Copies to:
Rupa Briggs
Sarah Sellers
Adam Dinow
Yoon-jee
Kim
Cooley LLP
55 Hudson Yards
New York, NY 10001
(212)
479-6000
 
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
 
  
Accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
  
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
 
 
 

Table of Contents
The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. Neither we nor the selling securityholders may sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
Subject to Completion, Dated April 
2
1
, 2022
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
 
UP TO 19,354,059 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK
ISSUABLE UPON EXERCISE OF WARRANTS
UP TO 96,941,181 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK
UP TO 4,450,000 WARRANTS TO PURCHASE COMMON STOCK
 
 
This prospectus relates to the issuance by us of up to an aggregate of 19,354,059 shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “common stock”) consisting of (i) 4,450,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of 4,450,000 warrants (the “private placement warrants”) originally issued in a private placement in connection with the initial public offering (the “IPO”) of Supernova Partners Acquisition Company II, Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company (“Supernova”), by the holders thereof, (ii) 8,624,972 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of 8,624,972 warrants (the “public warrants” and, together with the private placement warrants, the “warrants”) originally issued in the IPO by holders thereof, and (iii) 6,279,087 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants assumed by us and converted into warrants to purchase common stock (the “Rigetti assumed warrants”) in connection with the Business Combination (as defined below). We will receive the proceeds from the exercise of any warrants and any Rigetti assumed warrants for cash.
This prospectus also relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus or their permitted transferees (the “selling securityholders”) of up to (i) 96,941,181 shares of common stock consisting of (a) 10,251,000 shares of common stock purchased by subscribers at a price of $10.00 per share and 4,390,244 shares of common stock purchased by subscribers at a price of $10.25 per share in private placements pursuant to separate subscription agreements, (b) 8,625,000 shares of common stock (the “Founder Shares”) originally purchased by Supernova Partners II LLC (“Supernova Sponsor”) for $25,000, or for approximately $0.004 per share, in a private placement in connection with the IPO, including 3,059,273 Founder Shares subject to vesting and forfeiture (the “Sponsor Vesting Shares”), (c) 4,450,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the private placement warrants, (d) 2,446,716 shares of common stock issuable pursuant to the exercise of Rigetti assumed warrants, which Rigetti assumed warrants have a weighted average exercise price of $0.6628 per share, (e) 6,226,065 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options, which have an exercise price of $0.272 per share, (f) 6,288,369 shares of common stock issuable in connection with the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units, which were assumed by and converted into restricted stock awards for common stock in connection with the Business Combination based on an acquiror share value of $10.00 per share and (g) 54,263,787 shares of common stock issued in connection with the Business Combination as merger consideration at an acquiror share value of $10.00 per share, and (ii) up to 4,450,000 private placement warrants, which were purchased by Supernova Sponsor at a price of $2.00 per warrant. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock or warrants by the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus.
In connection with the Extraordinary General Meeting (as defined below) and the Business Combination, holders of 22,915,538 of Supernova’s Class A ordinary shares, or 66.4% of the shares with redemption rights, exercised their right to redeem their shares for cash at a redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share, for an aggregate redemption amount of $229,155,380. The shares of common stock being offered for resale pursuant to this prospectus by the selling securityholders represent approximately 63.5% of shares outstanding of the Company as of March 31, 2022 (after giving effect to the issuance of shares upon exercise of outstanding public warrants, private placement warrants, Rigetti assumed warrants and options and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units). Given the substantial number of shares of common stock being registered for potential resale by selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus, the sale of shares by the selling securityholders, or the perception in the market that the selling securityholders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could increase the volatility of the market price of our common stock or result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our common stock. Even if our trading price is significantly below $10.00, the offering price for the units offered in Supernova’s IPO, certain of the selling securityholders, including Supernova Sponsor, may still have an incentive to sell shares of our common stock because they purchased the shares at prices lower than the public investors or the current trading price of our common stock. For example, based on the closing price of our common stock of $5.90 as of April 20, 2022, Supernova Sponsor and other holders of the Founder Shares (assuming all Sponsor Vesting Shares are fully vested) would experience a potential profit of up to approximately $5.90 per share, or up to approximately $50.9 million in the aggregate.
The selling securityholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the securities hereby registered publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales of the shares of common stock or warrants, except with respect to any amounts received by us upon exercise of any warrants or Rigetti assumed warrants. The exercise price of our public warrants and private placement warrants is $11.50 per warrant. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the trading price of our common stock. If the trading price for our common stock is less than $11.50 per share, we believe holders of our public warrants and private placement warrants will be unlikely to exercise their warrants. The weighted average exercise price of the Rigetti assumed warrants is $0.6628 per share.
We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of these securities, including with regard to compliance with state securities or “blue sky” laws. The selling securityholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sale of shares of common stock or warrants. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.”
Our common stock and public warrants are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “RGTI” and “RGTIW,” respectively. On April 20, 2022, the last reported sales price of our common stock was $5.90 per share and the last reported sales price of our public warrants was $0.9101 per warrant.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with reduced public company reporting requirements. This prospectus complies with the requirements that apply to an issuer that is an emerging growth company.
 
 
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risks. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described in the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 16 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in any amendments or supplements to this prospectus.
 
 
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
 
The date of this prospectus is             , 2022.

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F-1
 
 
 
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. No one has been authorized to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is dated as of the date set forth on the cover hereof. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than that date.
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the selling securityholders may, from time to time, sell the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such selling securityholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus. This prospectus also relates to the issuance by us of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants pursuant to this prospectus, except with respect to amounts received by us upon exercise of the warrants for cash.
Neither we nor the selling securityholders have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. Neither we nor the selling securityholders take responsibility for, or provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor the selling securityholders will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”
On March 2, 2022 (the “Closing Date”), we consummated the transactions contemplated by that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger dated as of October 6, 2021, as amended on December 23, 2021 and January 10, 2022 (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”), by and among Supernova, Supernova Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Supernova (“First Merger Sub”), Supernova Romeo Merger Sub, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Supernova (“Second Merger Sub”), and Rigetti Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Legacy Rigetti”). As contemplated by the Merger Agreement, on March 1, 2022 Supernova was domesticated as a Delaware corporation and changed its name to “Rigetti Computing, Inc.” (the “Domestication”). On the Closing Date, (i) First Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Rigetti, the separate corporate existence of First Merger Sub ceased and Legacy Rigetti survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Rigetti Computing, Inc. (the “Surviving Corporation” and, such merger, the “First Merger”) and (ii) immediately following the First Merger, the Surviving Corporation merged with and into the Second Merger Sub, the separate corporate existence of the Surviving Corporation ceased and Second Merger Sub survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Rigetti Computing, Inc. and changed its name to “Rigetti Intermediate LLC” (such merger transaction, the “Second Merger” and, together with the First Merger, the “Merger,” and, collectively with the Domestication, the PIPE Financing (as defined below) and the other transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement, the “Business Combination”). The closing of the Business Combination is herein referred to as “the Closing.”
We are registering the resale of shares of common stock and warrants as required by (i) the amended and restated registration rights agreement, dated as of March 2, 2022 (the “Registration Rights Agreement”), entered into by and among Rigetti Computing, Inc., Supernova Sponsor, certain former stockholders of Legacy Rigetti, our directors and officers, the former directors and officers of Supernova and certain additional parties and (ii) the subscription agreements, entered into by and among Supernova and certain qualified institutional buyers and accredited investors relating to the purchase of shares of common stock in private placements consummated in connection with the Business Combination.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “Rigetti,” “Rigetti Computing,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Rigetti Computing, Inc. (f/k/a Supernova Partners
 
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Acquisition Company II, Ltd.) and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to “Supernova” refer to our predecessor company prior to the consummation of the Business Combination (the “Closing,” and the date of the consummation of the Business Combination, the “Closing Date”). References to “Legacy Rigetti” refer to Rigetti Holdings, Inc. prior to the Closing.
This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “
Where You Can Find More Information.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). This includes, without limitation, statements regarding the financial position, business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for future operations. These statements constitute projections, forecasts and forward-looking statements, and are not guarantees of performance. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. Any statements that refer to projections, forecasts or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions.
These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Except as otherwise required by applicable law, we disclaim any duty to update any forward-looking statements, all of which are expressly qualified by the statements in this section, to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus. We caution you that these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control.
Forward-looking statements in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:
 
   
our ability to achieve milestones, technological advancements, including with respect to executing on our technology roadmap and developing practical applications;
 
   
the potential of quantum computing and estimated market size and market growth;
 
   
the success of our partnerships and collaborations;
 
   
our ability to accelerate our development of multiple generations of quantum processors;
 
   
the outcome of any legal proceedings that may be instituted against us or others with respect to the Business Combination or other matters;
 
   
our ability to execute on our business strategy, including monetization of our products;
 
   
our financial performance, growth rate and market opportunity;
 
   
our ability to maintain the listing of our common stock and public warrants on the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”), and the potential liquidity and trading of such securities;
 
   
the risk that the Business Combination disrupts current plans and operations of Rigetti;
 
   
the ability to recognize the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination, which may be affected by, among other things, competition, our ability to grow and manage growth profitably, maintain relationships with customers and suppliers and retain our management and key employees;
 
   
costs related to the Business Combination and operating as a public company;
 
   
our ability to remediate the material weakness we have identified or otherwise fail to establish and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting;
 
   
changes in applicable laws or regulations;
 
   
the possibility that we may be adversely affected by other economic, business, or competitive factors;
 
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our estimates of expenses and profitability;
 
   
the evolution of the markets in which we compete;
 
   
our ability to implement our strategic initiatives, expansion plans and continue to innovate our existing services;
 
   
the expected use of proceeds of the Business Combination;
 
   
the sufficiency of our cash resources and our ability to raise additional capital;
 
   
unfavorable conditions in our industry, the global economy or global supply chain (including any supply chain impacts from the ongoing military conflict involving Russia and Ukraine), including financial and credit market fluctuations;
 
   
changes in applicable laws or regulations;
 
   
our success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, our officers, key employees or directors;
 
   
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
 
   
our ability to expand or maintain our existing customer base; and
 
   
the effect of
COVID-19
on the foregoing.
Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Additional cautionary statements or discussions of risks and uncertainties that could affect our results or the achievement of the expectations described in forward-looking statements may also be contained in any accompanying prospectus supplement.
Should one or more of the risks or uncertainties described in this prospectus, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results and plans could differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. Additional information concerning these and other factors that may impact the operations and projections discussed herein can be found in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and in our periodic filings with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available publicly on the SEC’s website at
www.sec.gov
.
You should read this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement completely and with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity and performance as well as other events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
 
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CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS
Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to:
Board
” are to the board of directors of Rigetti Computing, Inc. following the consummation of the Business Combination;
Business Combination
” are to the Domestication, the Merger and other transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement, collectively, including the PIPE Financing;
Closing
” are to the closing of the Business Combination;
Closing Date
” are to March 2, 2022;
common stock
” means the shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of Rigetti Computing, Inc.;
Domestication
” are to the transfer by way of continuation and deregistration of Supernova from the Cayman Islands and the continuation and domestication of Supernova as a corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware which was effectuated on March 1, 2022;
Exchange Ratio
” means 0.786989052873439, as calculated pursuant to the Merger Agreement.
GAAP
” are to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, as applied on a consistent basis;
initial public offering
” or “
IPO
” are to Supernova’s initial public offering that was consummated on March 4, 2021;
Legacy Rigetti
” are to Rigetti Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries since the consummation of the Rigetti Holding Company Reorganization on October 5, 2021 and prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, and to Rigetti & Co, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the consummation of the Rigetti Holding Company Reorganization on October 5, 2021;
Legacy Rigetti Board
” are to the board of directors of Legacy Rigetti;
Legacy
Rigetti common stock
” are to the common stock of Legacy Rigetti;
Legacy Rigetti Preferred Stock
” means, collectively, the shares of preferred stock, par value $0.000001 per share, of Legacy Rigetti, of which shares have been designated as Series C Preferred Stock and Series
C-1
Preferred Stock;
Merger Agreement
” are to that certain Merger Agreement, dated October 6, 2021, by and among Supernova, Supernova Merger Sub, Inc., Supernova Romeo Merger Sub, LLC and Rigetti Holdings, Inc., and as amended on December 23, 2021 and further amended on January 10, 2022;
Nasdaq
” are to The Nasdaq Capital Market;
NYSE
” are to the New York Stock Exchange;
PIPE Financing
” are to the transactions consummated in connection with Closing pursuant to the Subscription Agreements, in which the PIPE Investors collectively subscribed for an aggregate of 14,641,244 shares of common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $147,510,000;
 
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private placement warrants
” are to the 4,450,000 private placement warrants that were issued to Supernova Sponsor as part of the closing of Supernova’s IPO, which are substantially identical to the public warrants sold as part of the units in Supernova’s IPO, subject to certain limited exceptions;
public warrants
” are to the redeemable warrants (including those that underlie the Supernova units) that were offered and sold by Supernova in its IPO or the redeemable warrants of Rigetti issued as a matter of law upon the conversion thereof at the time of the Domestication, as context requires;
Rigetti assumed warrants
” means the warrants to purchase Legacy Rigetti Common Stock which were assumed and converted into a warrant to purchase shares of common stock in connection with the Business Combination, with each Rigetti assumed warrant subject to the same terms and conditions as were applicable to the original Legacy Rigetti warrant and having an exercise price and number of shares of common stock purchasable based on the Exchange Ratio and other terms contained in the Merger Agreement;
Rigetti assumed options
” means the options to purchase Legacy Rigetti Common Stock which were assumed and converted into an option to purchase shares of common stock in connection with the Business Combination, with each Rigetti assumed option subject to the same terms and conditions as were applicable to the original Legacy Rigetti option and having an exercise price and number of shares of common stock purchasable based on the Exchange Ratio and other terms contained in the Merger Agreement;
Rigetti assumed RSUs
” means the restricted stock units to purchase Legacy Rigetti Common Stock which were assumed and converted into a restricted stock unit award to receive shares of common stock in connection with the Business Combination, with each Rigetti assumed RSU subject to the same terms and conditions as were applicable to the original Legacy Rigetti restricted stock unit award and the number of shares of common stock to which the Rigetti assumed RSU relates based on the Exchange Ratio and other terms contained in the Merger Agreement;
Rigetti Holding Company Reorganization
” means the holding company reorganization pursuant to which (i) Rigetti & Co, Inc. established Rigetti Holdings, Inc. and Rigetti Intermediate Merger Sub Inc., each as wholly owned subsidiaries of Rigetti & Co, Inc., (ii) on October 5, 2021, pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Holding Company Merger Agreement”) by and among Rigetti & Co, Inc., Rigetti Holdings, Inc. and Rigetti Intermediate Merger Sub, Inc., dated as of October 5, 2021, Rigetti Intermediate Merger Sub, Inc. merged with and into Rigetti & Co, Inc., with Rigetti & Co, Inc. surviving such merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of Rigetti Holdings, Inc., with all of the outstanding equity securities of Rigetti & Co, Inc. exchanged for identical equity securities of Rigetti Holdings, Inc. and (iii) on October 6, 2021, Rigetti & Co, Inc. was converted into a Delaware limited liability company and continues as “Rigetti & Co, LLC”;
SEC
” are to the Securities and Exchange Commission;
Securities Act
” are to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;
Supernova
Class
 A ordinary shares
” are to the Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share, of Supernova, which were automatically converted, on a
one-for-one
basis, into shares of Rigetti common stock in connection with the Domestication;
Supernova
Class
 B ordinary shares
” are to the Class B ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share, of Supernova which automatically converted in connection with the Domestication on a
one-for-one
basis, into shares of Rigetti common stock;
Supernova Sponsor
” are to Supernova Partners II LLC, a Cayman Islands exempted company;
Sponsor Support Agreement
” are to that certain Sponsor Agreement, dated as of October 6, 2021, by and among Supernova Sponsor, Supernova and Legacy Rigetti, as amended and modified from time to time;
 
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Subscription Agreements
” are to the subscription agreements, entered into by Supernova and each of the PIPE Investors in connection with the PIPE Financing;
Supernova
” are to Supernova Partners Acquisition Company II, Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company, prior to the consummation of the Business Combination;
Supernova Board
” are to Supernova’s board of directors;
warrant agreement
” are to the Warrant Agreement, dated March 1, 2021, between Supernova and American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent; and
warrants
” are to the public warrants and the private placement warrants.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto and the information set forth in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Unless the context otherwise requires, we use the terms “Rigetti,” “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” in this prospectus to refer to Rigetti Computing, Inc. and our wholly owned subsidiaries.
Overview
We build quantum computers and the superconducting quantum processors that power them. We believe quantum computing represents one of the most transformative emerging capabilities in the world today. By leveraging quantum mechanics, we believe our quantum computers process information in fundamentally new, more powerful ways than classical computers.
We have been deploying our quantum computers to end users over the cloud since 2017. We offer our full-stack quantum computing platform as a cloud service to a wide range of
end-users,
directly through our Rigetti QCS platform, and also through cloud service providers.
We have developed strong customer relationships and collaborative partnerships to accelerate the development of key technologies for high-value use cases that unlock strategic early markets. Our partners and customers include commercial enterprises such as Amazon Web Services, Astex Pharmaceuticals, Deloitte, Microsoft, Nasdaq and Standard Chartered Bank, along with U.S. government organizations such as DARPA, DOE, and NASA.
We are led by our founder and CEO, Dr. Chad Rigetti, a quantum computing entrepreneur and physicist. Since founding the company in 2013, Dr. Rigetti has led us in becoming a preeminent global leader in quantum computing. He has assembled a world class leadership team and board, and established a culture of innovation within the Company. In addition to his track record as an entrepreneur and executive leader, Dr. Rigetti is an inventor on 38 issued U.S. patents and the author of more than 20 peer-reviewed scientific publications that have received more than 4,000 total citations.
Powered by the production of our scalable multi-chip quantum processors in
Fab-1
and our full-stack product development approach, our goal is to deliver quantum computing systems that demonstrate clear performance advantages over classical computing alternatives for multiple high-impact application areas.
Background
Supernova was a blank check company incorporated on December 22, 2020 in the Cayman Islands for the purpose of effecting a merger, amalgamation, share exchange, asset acquisition, share purchase, reorganization, or similar business combination with one or more businesses.
On the Closing Date, Rigetti consummated the Business Combination pursuant to the Merger Agreement. Supernova’s shareholders approved the Business Combination and Domestication at an extraordinary general meeting of shareholders held on February 28, 2022 (the “Extraordinary General Meeting”). In connection with the Extraordinary General Meeting and the Business Combination, holders of 22,915,538 of Supernova’s Class A ordinary shares (“Supernova Class A ordinary shares”), or 66.4% of the shares with redemption rights, exercised their right to redeem their shares for cash at a redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share, for an aggregate redemption amount of $229,155,380.
 
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On March 1, 2022, the business day prior to the Closing Date, Supernova effectuated the Domestication by filing a notice of deregistration with the Cayman Islands Registrar of Companies, together with the necessary accompanying documents, and filing a certificate of incorporation (the “Certificate of Incorporation”) and a certificate of corporate domestication with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, under which Supernova was domesticated and continues as a Delaware corporation. The board of directors of Rigetti also adopted the Bylaws of the Company (the “Bylaws”) on March 1, 2022, which became effective on that date.
In connection with the Domestication, Supernova changed its name from Supernova Partners Acquisition Company II, Ltd. to Rigetti Computing, Inc. As a result of and upon the effective time of the Domestication, among other things, (1) each then issued and outstanding Supernova Class A ordinary share converted automatically, on a
one-for-one
basis, into a share of common stock; (2) each then issued and outstanding Class B ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share, of Supernova (“Supernova Class B ordinary share”) converted automatically, on a
one-for-one
basis, into a share of common stock; (3) each then issued and outstanding whole warrant of Supernova to purchase one Supernova Class A ordinary shares converted automatically into a warrant to acquire one share of common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share pursuant to the Warrant Agreement, dated March 1, 2021 (the “warrant agreement”), between Supernova and American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent; and (4) each then issued and outstanding unit of Supernova (the “Supernova Units”) was separated and converted automatically into one share of common stock and
one-fourth
of one warrant to purchase common stock.
On the Closing Date, Rigetti consummated the First Merger and immediately following the First Merger, consummated the Second Merger. Immediately prior to the effective time of the First Merger, each share of Legacy Rigetti’s Series C preferred stock and Series
C-1
preferred stock (collectively, the “Legacy Rigetti Preferred Stock”), converted into shares of common stock of Legacy Rigetti (“Legacy Rigetti Common Stock”) in accordance with the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Legacy Rigetti (such conversion, the “Legacy Rigetti Preferred Conversion”).
As a result of the First Merger, among other things, (1) all outstanding shares of Legacy Rigetti Common Stock as of immediately prior to the Closing (including Legacy Rigetti Common Stock resulting from the Legacy Rigetti Preferred Stock Conversion), were exchanged at an exchange ratio of calculated pursuant to the Merger Agreement and equal to 0.786989052873439 (the “Exchange Ratio”) for an aggregate of 78,959,579 shares of common stock, (2) each warrant to purchase Legacy Rigetti Common Stock was assumed and converted into a Rigetti assumed warrant, with each Rigetti assumed warrant subject to the same terms and conditions as were applicable to the original Legacy Rigetti warrant and having an exercise price and number of shares of common stock purchasable based on the Exchange Ratio and other terms contained in the Merger Agreement, (3) each option to purchase Legacy Rigetti Common Stock was assumed and converted into an option to purchase shares of common stock (the “Rigetti assumed options”), with each Rigetti assumed option subject to the same terms and conditions as were applicable to the original Legacy Rigetti option and with an exercise price and number of shares of common stock purchasable based on the Exchange Ratio and other terms contained in the Merger Agreement and (4) each Legacy Rigetti restricted stock unit award was assumed and converted into a restricted stock unit award to receive shares of common stock (the “Rigetti assumed RSU”), with each Rigetti assumed RSU subject to the same terms and conditions as were applicable to the original Legacy Rigetti restricted stock unit award and the number of shares of common stock to which the Rigetti assumed RSU relates based on the Exchange Ratio and other terms contained in the Merger Agreement.
Concurrently with the execution of the Merger Agreement, Supernova entered into Subscription Agreements (the “Initial Subscription Agreements”) with certain investors (together, the “Initial PIPE Investors”), pursuant to which the Initial PIPE Investors agreed to subscribe for and purchase, and Supernova agreed to issue and sell to the Initial PIPE Investors, an aggregate of 10,251,000 shares of common stock at a price of $10.00 per share, for aggregate gross proceeds of $102,510,000 (the “Initial PIPE Financing”). On December 23, 2021, Supernova
 
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entered into Subscription Agreements (the “Subsequent Subscription Agreements,” and together with the Initial Subscription Agreements, the “Subscription Agreements”) with two “accredited investors” (as such term is defined in Rule 501 of Regulation D) (the “Subsequent PIPE Investors,” and together with the Initial PIPE Investors, the “PIPE Investors”) pursuant to which the Subsequent PIPE Investors agreed to subscribe for and purchase, and Supernova agreed to issue and sell to the Subsequent PIPE Investors, an aggregate of 4,390,244 shares of common stock at a price of $10.25 per share, for aggregate gross proceeds of $45,000,000 (the “Subsequent PIPE Financing,” and together with the Initial PIPE Financing, the “PIPE Financing”). Pursuant to the Subscription Agreements, Rigetti agreed to provide the PIPE Investors with certain registration rights with respect to the shares purchased as part of the PIPE Financing. The PIPE Financing was consummated immediately prior to the Merger.
Excluding any potential cash proceeds from the exercise of warrants or Rigetti assumed warrants, we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents should be sufficient to meet our anticipated operating cash needs for at least the next 12 months. This estimate is based on our current business plan and expectations and assumptions in light of current macroeconomic conditions. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be incorrect and could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect, and future capital requirements and the adequacy of available funds will depend on many factors, including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. Our primary uses of cash are to fund our operations as we continue to grow our business. We will require a significant amount of cash for expenditures as we invest in ongoing research and development and business operations. Until such time as we may generate significant revenue from sales of our development contracts and other services, we expect to finance our cash needs through borrowings under our Loan Agreement (as defined below) and equity or debt financings or other capital sources, including development contract revenue with government agencies and strategic partnerships. Our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities could be significantly impacted by the resale of shares of common stock by selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus which could result in a significant decline in the trading price of our common stock and potentially hinder our ability to raise capital at terms that are acceptable to us or at all.
Summary Risk Factors
The following is a summary of select risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect us and our business, financial condition and results of operations. Before you invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider all the information in this prospectus, including matters set forth under the heading “Risk Factors,” immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include the following, among others:
 
   
We are in our early stages and have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to forecast our future results of operations.
 
   
We have a history of operating losses and expects to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.
 
   
Even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
 
   
We will require a significant amount of cash for expenditures as we invest in ongoing research and development and business operations and may need additional capital sooner than planned to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, and we cannot be sure that additional financing will be available.
 
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Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with the Business Combination or other ownership changes.
 
   
We have not produced quantum computers with high qubit counts or at volume and faces significant barriers in our attempts to produce quantum computers, including the need to invent and develop new technology. If we cannot successfully overcome those barriers, our business will be negatively impacted and could fail.
 
   
Our future generations of hardware developed to demonstrate narrow quantum advantage and broad quantum advantage, and the release of a 1,000+ qubit system and 4,000+ qubit system, each of which is an important milestone for our technical roadmap and commercialization, may not occur on our anticipated timeline or at all.
 
   
The quantum computing industry is competitive on a global scale and we may not be successful in competing in this industry or establishing and maintaining confidence in our long-term business prospects among current and future partners and customers.
 
   
Our business is currently dependent upon our relationship with our cloud providers. There are no assurances that we will be able to commercialize quantum computers from our relationships with cloud providers.
 
   
We rely on access to high performance third party classical computing through public clouds, high performance computing centers and
on-premises
computing infrastructure to deliver performant quantum solutions to customers. We may not be able to maintain high quality relationships and connectivity with these resources which could make it harder for us to reach customers or deliver solutions in a cost-effective manner.
 
   
Our system depends on the use of certain development tools, supplies, equipment and production methods. If we are unable to procure the necessary tools, supplies and equipment to build our quantum systems, or are unable to do so on a timely and cost-effective basis, and in sufficient quantities, we may incur significant costs or delays which could negatively affect our operations and business.
 
   
Even if we are successful in developing quantum computing systems and executing on our strategy, competitors in the industry may achieve technological breakthroughs which render our quantum computing systems obsolete or inferior to other products.
 
   
We may be unable to reduce the cost of developing our quantum computers, which may prevent us from pricing our quantum systems competitively.
 
   
The quantum computing industry is in its early stages and volatile, and if it does not develop, if it develops slower than we expect, if it develops in a manner that does not require use of our quantum computing solutions, if we encounter negative publicity or if our solution does not drive commercial engagement, the growth of our business will be harmed.
 
   
If our computers fail to achieve quantum advantage, our business, financial condition and future prospects may be harmed.
 
   
We could suffer disruptions, outages, defects and other performance and quality problems with our quantum computing systems, our production technology partners or with the public cloud, data centers and internet infrastructure on which we rely.
 
   
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future. If we fail to remediate the material weakness or if we otherwise fail to establish and maintain effective control over financial reporting, it may adversely affect our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results, and may adversely affect investor confidence and business operations.
 
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System security and data protection breaches, as well as cyber-attacks, including state-sponsored attacks, could disrupt our operations, which may damage our reputation and adversely affect our business.
 
   
Our failure to obtain, maintain and protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect and commercialize our proprietary products and technology and cause us to lose our competitive advantage.
 
   
Delaware law, the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover provisions, that limit the ability of stockholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable.
 
   
Our business will require significant amounts of capital to sustain operations.
 
   
Our warrants are accounted for as liabilities.
 
   
Sales of our common stock, or perceptions of sales, by the selling securityholders pursuant to future issuances of debt securities and equity securities may adversely affect us, our common stock and may be dilutive to existing stockholders.
 
   
Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq.
 
   
Our warrants may be out of the money at the time they become exercisable and they may expire worthless.
 
   
With the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding public warrants, we may amend the terms of the warrants in a manner that may be adverse to holders.
Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are located at 775 Heinz Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 and our telephone number is (510)
210-5550.
Our corporate website address is
www.rigetti.com
. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
“Rigetti” and our other registered and common law trade names, trademarks and service marks are property of Rigetti Computing, Inc. This prospectus contains additional trade names, trademarks and service marks of others, which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the
®
or
symbols.
Emerging Growth Company Status
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (“JOBS Act”). As an emerging growth company, we are exempt from certain requirements related to executive compensation, including the requirements to hold a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and to provide information relating to the ratio of total compensation of our Chief Executive Officer to the median of the annual total compensation of all of our employees, each as required by the Investor Protection and Securities Reform Act of 2010, which is part of the Dodd-Frank Act.
Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can choose not to take advantage of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, and any such election to not take advantage of the extended transition period is irrevocable. Supernova previously elected to avail itself of the extended transition period and we will take advantage of the benefits of the extended transition period emerging growth company status permits. During the extended
 
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transition period, it may be difficult or impossible to compare our financial results with the financial results of another public company that complies with public company effective dates for accounting standard updates because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
We will remain an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act until the earliest of (a) December 31, 2026 (the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the consummation of the IPO), (b) the last date of our fiscal year in which we have a total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (c) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the rules of the SEC with at least $700.0 million of outstanding securities held by non-affiliates or (d) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the previous three years.
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in the Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an emerging growth company. We may take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies and will be able to take advantage of these scaled disclosures for so long as the market value of our voting and
non-voting
common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenue is less than $100.0 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our voting and
non-voting
common stock held by
non-affiliates
is less than $700.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.
 
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THE OFFERING
 
Issuer
Rigetti Computing, Inc. (f/k/a Supernova Partners Acquisition Company II, Ltd.).
Issuance of common stock
 
Shares of common stock offered by us
Up to 19,354,059 shares of our common stock consisting of (i) 4,450,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the private placement warrants by holders thereof, (ii) 8,624,972 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the public warrants by holders thereof, and (iii) 6,279,087 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Rigetti assumed warrants by holders thereof.
 
Shares of common stock outstanding prior to exercise of all warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants
113,810,285 shares (as of March 31, 2022).
 
Shares of common stock outstanding assuming exercise of all warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants
133,164,344 shares (based on total number of outstanding shares of common stock as of March 31, 2022).
 
Exercise price of public warrants and private placement warrants
$11.50 per share, subject to adjustment as described herein.
 
Exercise price of Rigetti assumed warrants
The weighted average exercise price of the Rigetti assumed warrants is $0.6628 per share.
 
Use of proceeds
We could potentially receive up to an aggregate of approximately $150.4 million from the exercise of the warrants and approximately $4.2 million from the exercise of Rigetti assumed warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants for cash. We expect to use any net proceeds from the exercise of the warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants for general corporate purposes. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their public warrants and private placement warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the trading price of our common stock. If the trading price for our common stock is less than $11.50 per share, we believe holders of our public warrants and private warrants will be unlikely to exercise their warrants. See the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”
Resale of common stock and warrants
 
Shares of common stock offered by the selling securityholders
We are registering the resale by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus, or their permitted transferees, and aggregate of up to 96,941,181 shares of common stock, consisting of:
 
   
14,641,244 shares of common stock issued in the PIPE Financing;
 
   
8,625,000 Founder Shares (including 3,059,273 Sponsor Vesting Shares subject to vesting and forfeiture);
 
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4,450,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the private placement warrants;
 
   
2,446,716 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of Rigetti assumed warrants;
 
   
6,226,065 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options;
 
   
6,288,369 shares of common stock issuable in connection with the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units; and
 
   
54,263,787 shares of common stock issued in connection with the Business Combination to certain of the selling securityholders.
 
Warrants offered by the selling security holders
Up to 4,450,000 private placement warrants.
 
Redemption
The public warrants and private placement warrants are redeemable in certain circumstances. See the section entitled “
Description of Securities—Warrants
” for further discussion.
 
Use of proceeds
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the shares of common stock or warrants by the selling securityholders.
 
Lock-up
agreements
Certain of our securityholders are subject to certain restrictions on transfer until the termination of applicable lock-up periods. See the sections entitled “
Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Sponsor Support Agreement
” and “
Description of Our
Securities—Lock-Up
Provisions in Bylaws
” for further discussion.
 
Market for common stock and public warrants
Our common stock and public warrants are currently traded on Nasdaq under the symbols “RGTI” and “RGTIW,” respectively.
 
Risk factors
Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read and consider the information set forth in “
Risk Factors
” beginning on page 13.
For additional information concerning the offering, see “
Plan of Distribution
” beginning on page 159.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus and in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before deciding to invest in our common stock. If any of the events or developments described below were to occur, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Status as an Early Stage Company
We are in our early stages and have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to forecast our future results of operations.
Legacy Rigetti was founded in 2013 and has operated quantum computers over the cloud since 2017. As a result of our limited operating history, our ability to accurately forecast the future results of operations is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. Our ability to generate revenues will largely be dependent on our ability to develop and produce quantum computers with increasing numbers of quantum bits (“qubits”). As of March 31, 2022, the highest number of qubits we have deployed is a quantum computer with 80 qubits. As a result, our scalable business model has not been formed and our technical roadmap may not be realized as quickly as hoped, or even at all. We have in the past failed to meet publicly announced milestones and may fail to meet projected technological milestones in the future. For example, in 2018, we announced that we planned to build and deploy a
128-qubit
system over the subsequent twelve months, but have not to date built a
128-qubit
system. The development of our scalable business model will likely require the incurrence of a substantially higher level of costs than incurred to date, while our revenues will not substantially increase until more powerful, scalable computers are produced, which requires a number of technological advancements which may not occur on the currently anticipated timetable or at all. As a result, our historical results should not be considered indicative of our future performance. Further, in future periods, our growth could slow or decline for a number of reasons, including but not limited to slowing demand for our Quantum Cloud Services (“Quantum Cloud Services” or “QCS”), increased competition, changes to technology, inability to scale up our technology, a decrease in the growth of the market, or our failure, for any reason, to continue to take advantage of growth opportunities.
We have also encountered, and will continue to encounter, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties and our future growth are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations, and our business could suffer. Our success as a business ultimately relies upon fundamental research and development breakthroughs in the coming years. There is no certainty these research and development milestones will be achieved as quickly as hoped, or even at all.
We have a history of operating losses and expects to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.
We incurred net losses of $38.2 million for the eleven months ended December 31, 2021 and $26.1 million for the year ended January 31, 2021. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $207.1 million. We believe that we will continue to incur operating and net losses each quarter until at least the time we begin generating significant revenue from our narrow or broad quantum advantage quantum computers, which may never occur. Even with significant production, our services may never become profitable.
 
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We expect the rate at which we will incur losses to be significantly higher in future periods as we, among other things, continues to incur significant expenses in connection with the design, development and manufacturing of our quantum computers; and as we expands our research and development activities; invest in manufacturing capabilities; build up inventories of components for our quantum computers; increase our sales and marketing activities; develop our infrastructure; and increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations and our being a public company. We may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in revenues, which would further increase our losses. If we are unable to achieve and/or sustain profitability, or if we are unable to achieve the growth that we expect from these investments, it could have a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our business model is unproven and may never allow us to cover our costs.
We may not be able to scale our business quickly enough to meet customer and market demand, which could result in lower profitability or cause us to fail to execute on our business strategies.
In order to grow our business, we will need to continually evolve and scale our business and operations to meet customer and market demand. Quantum computing technology has never been sold at large-scale commercial levels. Evolving and scaling our business and operations places increased demands on our management as well as our financial and operational resources to:
 
   
attract new customers and grow our customer base;
 
   
maintain and increase the rates at which existing customers use our platform, sell additional products and services to our existing customers, and reduce customer churn;
 
   
invest in our platform and product offerings;
 
   
effectively manage organizational change;
 
   
accelerate and/or refocus research and development activities;
 
   
expand manufacturing and supply chain capacity;
 
   
increase sales and marketing efforts;
 
   
broaden customer-support and services capabilities;
 
   
maintain or increase operational efficiencies;
 
   
implement appropriate operational and financial systems; and
 
   
maintain effective financial disclosure controls and procedures.
Commercial traction of quantum computing technology may never occur. As noted above, there are significant technological challenges associated with developing, producing, marketing and selling services in the advanced technology industry, including our services, and we may not be able to resolve all of the difficulties that may arise in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. We may not be able to cost effectively manage production at a scale or quality consistent with customer demand in a timely or economical manner.
Our ability to scale is dependent also upon components we must source from multiple industries including: from the electronics industry with
low-noise
microwave components, CPUs, GPUs, FPGAs; cryogenic industry with dilution refrigerators and associated helium gas products; and from the semiconductor industry with silicon wafers and other specialty materials, tooling and measurement equipment. Shortages or supply interruptions in any of these components will adversely impact our ability to deliver revenues.
If large-scale development of our quantum computers commences, our computers may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them to not perform as expected or that may require repair and design changes. Our quantum computers are inherently complex and incorporate technology and components that have not been used for other applications and that may contain defects and errors, particularly when first introduced.
 
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We have a limited frame of reference from which to evaluate the long-term performance of our computers. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in our quantum computers in a timely manner that does not disrupt our services to our customers. If our technology fails to perform as expected, customers may seek out a competitor or turn away from quantum computing entirely, each of which could adversely affect our sales and brand and could adversely affect our business, prospects and results of operations. If defects in our technology lead to erroneous outputs, third parties relying on those outputs may draw from them erroneous conclusions, creating a risk that we will be liable to those third parties.
If we cannot evolve and scale our business and operations effectively, we may not be able to execute our business strategies in a cost-effective manner and our business, financial condition, profitability and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Even if the market in which we compete achieves its anticipated growth levels, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
Our success will depend upon our ability to expand, scale our operations, and increase our sales and support capability. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth forecasted, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
Our growth is dependent upon our ability to successfully expand our solutions and services, retain customers, bring in new customers and retain critical talent. Unforeseen issues associated with scaling up and constructing quantum computing technology at commercially viable levels could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our growth is dependent upon our ability to successfully market and sell our quantum computing services and solutions. We do not have experience with the large-scale production and sale of quantum computing technology. Our growth and long-term success will depend upon the development of our sales and retention capabilities.
Moreover, because of our unique technology, our customers will require particular support and service functions, some of which are not currently available, and may never be available. If we experience delays in adding such support capacity or servicing our customers efficiently, or experiences unforeseen issues with the reliability of our technology, we could overburden our servicing and support capabilities. Similarly, increasing the number of our products and services would require us to rapidly increase the availability of these services. Failure to adequately support and service our customers may inhibit our growth and ability to expand.
There is no assurance that we will be able to ramp our business to meet our sales, manufacturing, installation, servicing and quantum computing targets globally, that expected growth levels will prove accurate or that the pace of growth or coverage of our customer infrastructure network will meet customer expectations. Failure to grow at rates similar to that of the quantum computing industry may adversely affect our operating results and ability to effectively compete within the industry.
We may not manage growth effectively.
Our failure to manage growth effectively could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. We anticipate that a period of significant expansion will be required to address potential growth. This expansion will place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources. Expansion will require significant cash investments and management resources and there is no guarantee that they will generate additional sales of our products or services, or that we will be able to avoid cost overruns or be able to hire additional personnel to support us. In addition, we will also need to ensure our compliance with regulatory requirements in various jurisdictions applicable to the sale, installation and servicing of our products. To manage the growth of our operations and personnel, we must establish appropriate and scalable operational and financial systems, procedures and controls and establish and maintain a qualified finance, administrative and operations
 
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staff. We may be unable to acquire the necessary capabilities and personnel required to manage growth or to identify, manage and exploit potential strategic relationships and market opportunities.
We will require a significant amount of cash for expenditures as we invest in ongoing research and development and business operations and may need additional capital sooner than planned to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances, and we cannot be sure that additional financing will be available. If we are unable to raise additional funding when needed, we may be required to delay, limit or substantially reduce our quantum computing development efforts.
Our business and future plans for expansion are capital-intensive, and the specific timing of cash inflows and outflows may fluctuate substantially from period to period. We will require a significant amount of cash for expenditures as we invest in ongoing research and development and business operations. Our operating plan may change because of factors currently unknown, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned, through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, such as strategic collaborations. Such financings may result in dilution to stockholders, issuance of securities with priority as to liquidation and dividend and other rights more favorable than common stock, imposition of debt covenants and repayment obligations or other restrictions that may adversely affect our business. Any funds we raise may not be sufficient to enable us to continue to implement our long-term business strategy. Further, our ability to raise additional capital may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and the recent disruptions to and volatility in the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide resulting from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and military conflict with Russia and Ukraine and the related sanctions imposed against Russia. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe that we have sufficient funds for current or future operating plans. There can be no assurance that financing will be available to we on favorable terms, or at all. The inability to obtain financing when needed may make it more difficult for us to operate our business or implement our growth plans and we may be required to delay, limit or substantially reduce our quantum computing development efforts. Our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities could be significantly impacted by the resale of shares of common stock by selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus which could result in a significant decline in the trading price of our common stock and potentially hinder our ability to raise capital at terms that are acceptable to us or at all.
We have a credit facility secured by substantially all of our assets under which we have borrowed and may in the future borrow additional amounts; any indebtedness thereunder could adversely affect our financial position and our ability to raise additional capital and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations.
On March 10, 2021, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (as amended from time to time, the “Loan Agreement”) with Trinity Capital Inc., or Trinity. The credit facility has an available borrowing capacity of $32.0 million. As of the date of this prospectus, we had total outstanding indebtedness of $32 million consisting of outstanding borrowings under the Loan Agreement. This and future indebtedness incurred under the Loan Agreement may:
 
   
limit our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general business purposes;
 
   
require us to use a portion of our cash flow from operations to make debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flow available for future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general business purposes;
 
   
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates as following the consummation of our initial public offering borrowings under the Loan Agreement are subject to interest at the greater of (i) a floating per annum rate equal to 7.5% above the prime rate, or (ii) a fixed per annum rate equal to 11.0%, also paid on a monthly basis;
 
   
limit our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business and industry;
 
   
increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic, competitive and industry conditions; and
 
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increase our cost of borrowing.
The credit facility is secured by substantially all of our assets. In addition, the Loan Agreement contains, and the agreements governing our future indebtedness may contain, restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. These restrictive covenants include, among others, financial reporting requirements and limitations on indebtedness, liens, mergers, consolidations, liquidations and dissolutions, sales of assets, dividends and other restricted payments, investments (including acquisitions) and transactions with affiliates. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our debt.
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with the Business Combination or other ownership changes.
We have incurred losses during our history, do not expect to become profitable in the near future and may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of December 31, 2021, we had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $190.9 million.
Under legislation informally known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”), as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act.
In addition, our net operating loss carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the IRS, and state tax authorities. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), our federal net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in the ownership of the Company. An “ownership change” pursuant to Section 382 of the Code generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of a company’s stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities may be limited as a result of ownership changes, including potential changes in connection with the Business Combination or other transactions. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We have not yet determined the amount of the cumulative change in our ownership resulting from the Business Combination or other transactions, or any resulting limitations on our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes. If we earn taxable income, such limitations could result in increased future income tax liability and our future cash flows could be adversely affected. We have recorded a valuation allowance related to our net operating loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We have not produced quantum computers with high qubit counts or at volume and faces significant barriers in our attempts to produce quantum computers, including the need to invent and develop new technology. If we cannot successfully overcome those barriers, our business will be negatively impacted and could fail.
Producing quantum computers is a difficult undertaking. There are significant engineering challenges that we must overcome to build our quantum computers. We are still in the development stage and faces significant challenges in completing development of our quantum computers and in producing quantum computers in sufficient volumes. Some of the development challenges that could prevent the introduction of our quantum computers include, but are not limited to, failure to find scalable ways to manipulate qubits, failure to reduce error rates, failure to transition quantum systems to leverage
low-cost
components, and failure to realize multi-chip quantum computer technology.
 
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Even if we complete development and achieve volume production of our quantum computers, if the cost, accuracy, performance characteristics or other specifications of the quantum computer fall short of our expectations, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
Our future generations of hardware developed to demonstrate narrow quantum advantage and broad quantum advantage, and the release of a 1,000+ qubit system and 4,000+ qubit system, each of which is an important milestone for our technical roadmap and commercialization, may not occur on our anticipated timeline or at all.
Our successful execution of our technical roadmap is based on the development of multiple generations of quantum computing systems, including hardware that demonstrates narrow quantum advantage and broad quantum advantage, and the release of a 1,000+ qubit system in 2024 and 4,000+ qubit system in 2026. The future success of our technical roadmap will depend upon our ability to continue to increase the number of qubits and decrease error rates in each subsequent generation of our quantum computer. If we are unable to achieve the increase in the number of qubits or decrease in error rates on the timeframe that we anticipate, the availability of future generations of quantum computer systems may be materially delayed, or may never occur. In the past we has failed to meet publicly announced milestones and may fail to meet projected milestones in the future. If our technical roadmap is delayed or never achieved, this would have a material impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The quantum computing industry is competitive on a global scale and we may not be successful in competing in this industry or establishing and maintaining confidence in our long-term business prospects among current and future partners and customers.
The markets in which we operates are rapidly evolving and highly competitive. As the marketplace continues to mature and new technologies and competitors enter, we expect competition to intensify. Our current competitors include:
 
   
large, well-established tech companies that generally compete across our products, including Quantinuum, Google, Microsoft, Amazon, Intel and IBM;
 
   
large research organizations funded by sovereign nations such as China, Russia, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom, and those in the European Union as of the date of this prospectus and we believe additional countries in the future;
 
   
less-established public and private companies with competing technology, including companies located outside the United States; and
 
   
new or emerging entrants seeking to develop competing technologies.
We compete based on various factors, including technology, performance, multi-cloud availability, brand recognition and reputation, customer support and differentiated capabilities, including ease of administration and use, scalability and reliability, data governance and security. Many of our competitors have substantially greater brand recognition, customer relationships, and financial, technical and other resources, including an experienced sales force and sophisticated supply chain management. They may be able to respond more effectively than us to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, customer requirements and buying practices. In addition, many countries are focused on developing quantum computing solutions either in the private or public sector and may subsidize quantum computers which may make it difficult for us to compete. Many of these competitors do not face the same challenges we do in growing our business. In addition, other competitors might be able to compete with us by bundling their other products in a way that does not allow us to offer a competitive solution.
Additionally, we must be able to achieve our objectives in a timely manner lest quantum computing lose ground to competitors, including competing technologies. Because there are a large number of market participants, including certain sovereign nations, focused on developing quantum computing technology, we must dedicate significant resources to achieving any technical objectives on the timelines established by our management team. Any failure to achieve objectives in a timely manner could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
 
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For all of these reasons, competition may negatively impact our ability to maintain and grow consumption of our platform or put downward pressure on our prices and gross margins, any of which could materially harm the reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition of the Company.
Our business is currently dependent upon our relationship with our cloud providers. There are no assurances that we will be able to commercialize quantum computers from our relationships with cloud providers.
We currently offer access to quantum computing as a service (“Quantum Computing as a Service,” or “QCaaS”), both directly to our end users with our own Quantum Cloud Services. and indirectly to end users through public cloud providers such as Amazon Braket who integrate our QCS into their own quantum computing platforms. These public cloud partners operate a service in direct competition with our providing direct access to QCS. Currently, a majority of our Quantum Computing as a Service, or QCaaS, business is run through the AWS service, and we intend to partner with additional partners to provide access to our QCaaS. Cloud computing partnerships could be terminated, or not scale as anticipated, or even at all.
There is risk that one or more of the public cloud providers, such as AWS and Azure could use their respective control of their public clouds to control market pricing of the services, restrict access, embed innovations or privileged interoperating capabilities in competing products, bundle competing products and leverage their public cloud customer relationships to exclude us from opportunities. Further, they have the resources to acquire or partner with existing and emerging providers of competing technology and thereby accelerate adoption of those competing technologies. All of the foregoing could make it difficult or impossible for us to provide products and services that compete favorably with those of the public cloud providers.
Further, if our contractual and other business relationships with our partners are terminated, either by the counterparty or by us, suspended or suffer a material change to which we are unable to adapt, such as the elimination of services or features on which we depend, we would be unable to provide our QCaaS business at the same scale and would experience significant delays and incur additional expense in transitioning customers to a different public cloud provider.
Currently, our customer agreement with AWS remains in effect until (i) terminated for convenience, which we may do for any reason by providing AWS notice and closing our account and which AWS may do for any reason by providing us at least 30 days’ notice or (ii) terminated for cause, which either party may do if the other party has an uncured material breach and which AWS may do immediately upon notice. Although alternative data center providers could host our business on a substantially similar basis to AWS, transitioning the cloud infrastructure currently hosted by AWS to alternative providers could potentially be disruptive, and we could incur significant
one-time
costs. If we are unable to renew our agreement with AWS on commercially acceptable terms, our agreement with AWS is prematurely terminated, or it adds additional infrastructure providers, we may experience costs or downtime in connection with the transfer to, or the addition of, new data center providers. If AWS or other infrastructure providers increase the costs of their services, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Any material change in our contractual and other business relationships with our partners, could result in reduced use of our systems, increased expenses, including service credit obligations, and harm to our brand and reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on access to high performance third party classical computing through public clouds, high performance computing centers and
on-premises
computing infrastructure to deliver performant quantum solutions to customers. We may not be able to maintain high quality relationships and connectivity with these resources which could make it harder for us to reach customers or deliver solutions in a cost-effective manner.
Our QCS incorporates high performance classical computing through public clouds to provide services to end users and our partners. These services are predominantly on AWS.
 
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Any material change in our contractual and other business relationships with AWS or other cloud provider, could result in reduced use of our systems, increased expenses, including service credit obligations, and harm our brand and reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, if our contractual and other business relationships with our partners is terminated, either by the counterparty or by us, suspended or suffer a material change to which we are unable to adapt, such as the elimination of services or features on which we depend, we would be unable to provide our QCaaS business at the same scale and would experience significant delays and incur additional expense in transitioning customers to a different public cloud provider.
We depend on certain suppliers to source products. Failure to maintain our relationship with any of these suppliers, or a failure to replace any supplier, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We buy our products and supplies from suppliers that manufacture and source products from the United States and abroad. We enter into agreements with many of our suppliers that provide us with exclusive or restrictive distribution rights, limiting our competitors’ ability to source materials from such suppliers. Our ability to identify and develop relationships with qualified suppliers and enter into exclusive or restrictive distribution rights agreements with suppliers who can satisfy our standards for quality and our need to access products and supplies in a timely and efficient manner is a significant challenge. In the eleven months ended December 31, 2021, our top supplier accounted for approximately 3% of our product expenditures. Our top ten largest suppliers accounted for approximately 28% of our total purchases in the eleven months ended December 31, 2021. Any failure to maintain our relationship with any of our top ten largest suppliers, or a failure to replace any such supplier that is lost, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We may be required to replace a supplier if their products do not meet our quality or safety standards. In addition, our suppliers could discontinue selling products at any time for reasons that may or may not be in our control or the suppliers’ control, including shortages of raw materials, environmental and social supply chain issues, pandemic, labor disputes or weather conditions. Disruptions in transportation lines or the ongoing military conflict involving Russia and Ukraine may also cause global supply chain issues that affect us or our suppliers. We generally have multiple sources of supply, however, in some cases, materials are provided by a single supplier. The loss of, or substantial decrease in the availability of, products from our suppliers, or the loss of a key supplier, temporarily or permanently, could result in a material shortage of products, which could lead to price escalations that we may be unable to offset by our prices to our customers. When supply chain issues are later resolved and prices return to normal levels, we may be required to reduce the prices at which we sell our products to our customers in order to remain competitive. In addition, even where these risks do not materialize, we may incur costs as we prepare contingency plans to address such risks. Our operating results and inventory levels could suffer if we are unable to promptly replace a supplier who is unwilling or unable to satisfy our requirements with a supplier providing similar products. In addition, our suppliers’ ability to deliver products may also be affected by raw material and commodity cost volatility or financing constraints caused by credit market conditions, which could materially and negatively impact our net sales and operating costs, at least until alternate sources of supply are arranged.
Additionally, our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected by our inability to continue sourcing products from our suppliers. Although we seek to have alternate sources and recover increases in input costs through price increases in our products, shortages, supply chain interruptions or regulatory changes or other governmental actions could result in the need to change suppliers or incur cost increases that cannot, in the short term, or in some cases even in the long-term, be offset by our prices.
 
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We may face unknown supply chain issues that could delay the development or introduction of our product and negatively impact our business and operating results.
We are reliant on third-party suppliers for components necessary to develop and manufacture our quantum computing solutions. Any of the following factors (and others) could have an adverse impact on the availability of these components:
 
   
our inability to enter into agreements with suppliers on commercially reasonable terms, or at all;
 
   
difficulties of suppliers ramping up their supply of materials to meet our requirements;
 
   
a significant increase in the price of one or more components, including due to industry consolidation occurring within one or more component supplier markets or as a result of decreased production capacity at manufacturers;
 
   
any reductions or interruption in supply, including disruptions on our global supply chain as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic, which we have experienced, and may in the future experience or as a result of the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the related sanctions imposed against Russia (including as a result of disruptions of global shipping, the transport of products, energy supply, cybersecurity incidents and banking systems as well as of our ability to control input costs) or otherwise;
 
   
financial problems of either manufacturers or component suppliers;
 
   
significantly increased freight charges, or raw material costs and other expenses associated with our business;
 
   
other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis;
 
   
a failure to develop our supply chain management capabilities and recruit and retain qualified professionals;
 
   
a failure to adequately authorize procurement of inventory by our contract manufacturers; or
 
   
a failure to appropriately cancel, reschedule or adjust our requirements based on our business needs.
If any of the aforementioned factors were to materialize, it could cause us to halt production of our quantum computing solutions and/or entail higher manufacturing costs, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition and could materially damage customer relationships.
Our system depends on the use of certain development tools, supplies, equipment and production methods. If we are unable to procure the necessary tools, supplies and equipment to build our quantum systems, or are unable to do so on a timely and cost-effective basis, and in sufficient quantities, we may incur significant costs or delays which could negatively affect our operations and business.
There are limited suppliers to sources of materials which may be necessary for the production of our technology. We are currently reliant on a single or small number of suppliers for certain resources. While we are currently looking to engage additional suppliers, there is no guarantee we will be able to establish or maintain relationships with such additional suppliers on terms satisfactory to us. Reliance on any single supplier increases the risks associated with being unable to obtain the necessary components because the supplier may have manufacturing constraints, can be subject to unanticipated shutdowns and/or may be affected by natural disasters and other catastrophic events. Some of these factors may be completely out of our and our suppliers’ control. Failure to acquire sufficient quantities of the necessary components in a timely or cost-effective manner could materially harm our business.
Even if we are successful in developing quantum computing systems and executing our strategy, competitors in the industry may achieve technological breakthroughs which render our quantum computing systems obsolete or inferior to other products.
Our continued growth and success depend on our ability to innovate and develop quantum computing technology in a timely manner and effectively market these products. Without timely innovation and
 
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development, our quantum computing solutions could be rendered obsolete or less competitive by changing customer preferences or because of the introduction of a competitor’s newer technologies. We believe that many competing technologies will require a technological breakthrough in one or more problems related to science, fundamental physics or manufacturing. While it is uncertain whether such technological breakthroughs will occur in the next several years that does not preclude the possibility that such technological breakthroughs could eventually occur. Any technological breakthroughs which render our technology obsolete or inferior to other products, could have a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may be unable to reduce the cost of developing our quantum computers, which may prevent us from pricing our quantum systems competitively.
The success of our business is dependent upon the cost per qubit decreasing over the next several years as our quantum computers advance, which is based on achieving anticipated economies of scale related to demand for our computer systems, technological innovation and negotiations with third-party parts suppliers. If we do not achieve economies of scale or if the anticipated cost savings do not materialize, we may be unable to achieve a lower cost per qubit, which would make our quantum computing solution less competitive than those produced by our competitors and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The quantum computing industry is in its early stages and volatile, and if it does not develop, if it develops slower than we expect, if it develops in a manner that does not require use of our quantum computing solutions, if it encounters negative publicity or if our solution does not drive commercial engagement, the growth of our business will be harmed.
The nascent market for quantum computers is still rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, competitive pricing and competitive factors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, and changing customer demands and behaviors. If demand for quantum computers in general does not develop as expected, or develops more slowly than expected, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
In addition, our growth and future demand for our products is highly dependent upon the adoption by developers and customers of quantum computers, as well as on our ability to demonstrate the value of quantum computing to our customers. Delays in future generations of our quantum computers or technical failures at other quantum computing companies could limit acceptance of our solution. Negative publicity concerning our solution or the quantum computing industry as a whole could limit acceptance of our solution. We believe quantum computing will solve many large-scale problems. However, such problems may never be solvable by quantum computing technology. If our clients and partners do not perceive the benefits of our solution, or if our solution does not drive member engagement, then demand for our products may not develop at all, or it may develop slower than we expect. If any of these events occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. If progress towards quantum advantage ever slows relative to expectations, it could adversely impact revenues and customer confidence to continue to pay for testing, access and “quantum readiness.” This would harm or even eliminate revenues in the period before quantum advantage.
If our computers fail to achieve quantum advantage, our business, financial condition and future prospects may be harmed.
Quantum advantage refers to the moment when a quantum computer can compute faster than traditional computers, while quantum supremacy is achieved once quantum computers are powerful enough to complete calculations that traditional supercomputers cannot perform at all. Broad quantum advantage is when quantum advantage is seen in many applications and developers prefer quantum computers to a traditional computer. No current quantum computers, including our quantum hardware, have reached a broad quantum advantage, and may never reach such advantage. Achieving a broad quantum advantage will be critical to the
 
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success of any quantum computing company, including ours. However, achieving quantum advantage would not necessarily lead to commercial viability of the technology that accomplished such advantage, nor would it mean that such system could outperform classical computers in tasks other than the one used to determine a quantum advantage. Quantum computing technology, including broad quantum advantage, may take decades to be realized, if ever. If we cannot develop quantum computers that have quantum advantage, customers may not continue to purchase our products and services. If other companies’ quantum computers reach a broad quantum advantage prior to the time we reach such capabilities, it could lead to a loss of customers. If any of these events occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We could suffer disruptions, outages, defects and other performance and quality problems with our quantum computing systems, our production technology partners or with the public cloud, data centers and internet infrastructure on which we rely.
Our business depends on our quantum computing systems being available. We have experienced, and may in the future further experience, disruptions, outages, defects and other performance and quality problems with our systems. We have also experienced, and may in the future further experience, disruptions, outages, defects and other performance and quality problems with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which our systems rely. These problems can be caused by a variety of factors, including failed introductions of new functionality, vulnerabilities and defects in proprietary and open-source software, hardware components, human error or misconduct, capacity constraints, design limitations or denial of service attacks or other security-related incidents. We do not have a contractual right with our public cloud providers that compensates us for any losses due to availability interruptions in the public cloud.
Any disruptions, outages, defects and other performance and quality problems with our quantum computing system or with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which we rely, could result in reduced use of our systems, increased expenses, including service credit obligations, and harm to our brand and reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we cannot successfully execute on our strategy, including in response to changing customer needs and new technologies and other market requirements, or achieve our objectives in a timely manner, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
The quantum computing market is characterized by rapid technological change, changing user requirements, uncertain product lifecycles and evolving industry standards. We believe that the pace of innovation will continue to accelerate as technology changes and different approaches to quantum computing mature on a broad range of factors, including system architecture, error correction, performance and scale, ease of programming, user experience, markets addressed, types of data processed, and data governance and regulatory compliance. Our future success depends on our ability to continue to innovate and increase customer adoption of our quantum solutions. If we are unable to enhance our quantum computing system to keep pace with these rapidly evolving customer requirements, or if new technologies emerge that are able to deliver competitive products at lower prices, more efficiently, with better functionality, more conveniently, or more securely than our platform, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We are highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain senior executive leadership and other key employees, such as quantum physicists, software engineers and other key technical employees, which is critical to our success. If we fail to retain talented, highly qualified senior management, engineers and other key employees or attract them when needed, such failure could negatively impact our business.
Our future success is highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain our executive officers, key employees and other qualified personnel. As we build our brand and become more well known, there is increased risk that competitors or other companies may seek to hire our personnel. The loss of the services provided by
 
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these individuals will adversely impact the achievement of our business strategy. These individuals could leave our employment at any time, as they are “at will” employees. A loss of a member of senior management, or an engineer or other key employee particularly to a competitor, could also place us at a competitive disadvantage. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution.
Our future success also depends on our continuing ability to attract, develop, motivate, and retain highly qualified and skilled employees. The market for highly skilled workers and leaders in the quantum computing industry is extremely competitive. In particular, hiring qualified personnel specializing in supply chain management, engineering and sales, as well as other technical staff and research and development personnel is critical to our business and the development of our quantum computing systems. Some of these professionals are hard to find and we may encounter significant competition in our efforts to hire them. Many of the other companies with which we compete for qualified personnel have greater financial and other resources than we do. The effective operation of our supply chain, including the acquisition of critical components and materials, the development of our quantum computing technologies, the commercialization of our quantum computing technologies and the effective operation of our managerial and operating systems all depend upon our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel in the aforementioned specialties. Additionally, changes in immigration and work permit laws and regulations or the administration or interpretation of such laws or regulations could impair our ability to attract and retain highly qualified employees. If we cannot attract, train and retain qualified personnel in this competitive environment, wemay experience delays in the development of our quantum computing technologies and be otherwise unable to develop and grow our business as projected, or even at all.
Our future growth and success depends on our ability to sell effectively to customers, which could make achieving revenue targets difficult.
In the eleven months ended December 31, 2021 and the year ended January 31, 2021, sales to government entities comprised 51.0% and 59.6% of our total revenue, respectively.
Our potential customers tend to be government agencies and large enterprises. Therefore, our future success will depend on our ability to effectively sell our products to such customers. Sales to these
end-customers
involve risks that may not be present (or that are present to a lesser extent) with sales to
non-governmental
agencies or smaller customers. These risks include, but are not limited to, (i) increased purchasing power and leverage held by such customers in negotiating contractual arrangements with us and (ii) longer sales cycles and the associated risk that substantial time and resources may be spent on a potential
end-customer
that elects not to purchase our solutions. Sales to government agencies are typically under fixed fee development contracts, which involve additional risks. See “
—If our cost and time estimates for fixed fee arrangements do not accurately anticipate the cost of servicing those arrangements, we could experience losses on these arrangements or our profitability could be reduced.
” In addition, government contracts generally include the ability of government agencies to terminate early which, if exercised, would result in a lower contract value and lower than anticipated revenues generated by such arrangement. See “
—Contracts with U.S. government entities subject us to risks including early termination, audits, investigations,sanctions and penalties.
Government agencies and large organizations often undertake a significant evaluation process that results in a lengthy sales cycle. Our contracts with government agencies are typically structured in phases, with each phase subject to satisfaction of certain conditions. As a result, the actual scope of work performed pursuant to any such contracts, in addition to related contract revenue, could be less than total contract value. In addition, product purchases by such organizations are frequently subject to budget constraints, multiple approvals and unanticipated administrative, processing and other delays. Finally, these organizations typically have longer implementation cycles, require greater product functionality and scalability, require a broader range of services, demand that vendors take on a larger share of risks, require acceptance provisions that can lead to a delay in revenue recognition and expect greater payment flexibility. All of these factors can add further risk to business conducted with these potential customers and could lead to lower revenue results than originally anticipated.
 
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We may not be able to accurately estimate the future supply and demand for our quantum computers, which could result in a variety of inefficiencies in our business and hinder our ability to generate revenue. If we fail to accurately predict our manufacturing requirements, it could incur additional costs or experience delays.
It is difficult to predict our future revenues and appropriately budget for our expenses, and we may have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. We anticipate being required to provide forecasts of our demand to our current and future suppliers prior to the scheduled delivery of products to potential customers. Currently, there is no historical basis for making judgments on the demand for our quantum computers or our ability to develop, manufacture, and deliver quantum computers, or our profitability, if any, in the future. If we overestimate our requirements, our suppliers may have excess inventory, which indirectly would increase our costs. If we underestimate our requirements, our suppliers may have inadequate inventory, which could interrupt manufacturing of our products and result in delays in shipments and revenues. In addition, lead times for materials and components that our suppliers order may vary significantly and depend on factors such as the specific supplier, contract terms and demand for each component at a given time. If we fail to order sufficient quantities of product components in a timely manner, the delivery of quantum computers and related compute time to our potential customers could be delayed, which would harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Because our success depends, in part, on our ability to expand sales internationally, our business will be susceptible to risks associated with international operations.
We currently maintain offices and have sales personnel in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada, and we intend to expand our international operations by developing a sales presence in other international markets. In the eleven months ended December 31, 2021 and year ended January 31, 2021, our
non-U.S.
revenue was 29% and 8% of our total revenue, respectively. We expect to continue to expand our international operations, which may include opening offices in new jurisdictions and providing our solutions in additional languages. Any additional international expansion efforts that we are undertaking and may undertake may not be successful. In addition, conducting international operations subjects weto new risks, some of which we have not generally faced in the United States or other countries where we currently operates. These risks include, among other things:
 
   
unexpected costs and errors in the localization of our platform and solutions, including translation into foreign languages and adaptation for local culture, practices and regulatory requirements;
 
   
lack of familiarity and burdens of complying with foreign laws, legal standards, privacy and cybersecurity standards, regulatory requirements, tariffs and other barriers, and the risk of penalties to our customers and individual members of management or employees if our practices are deemed to not be in compliance;
 
   
practical difficulties of enforcing intellectual property rights in countries with varying laws and standards and reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
 
   
an evolving legal framework and additional legal or regulatory requirements for data privacy and cybersecurity, which may necessitate the establishment of systems to maintain data in local markets, requiring us to invest in additional data centers and network infrastructure, and the implementation of additional employee data privacy documentation (including locally-compliant data privacy notice and policies), all of which may involve substantial expense and may cause us to need to divert resources from other aspects of our business, all of which may adversely affect our business;
 
   
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, taxes, trade laws, tariffs, export quotas, custom duties or other trade restrictions;
 
   
difficulties in managing systems integrators and technology partners;
 
   
differing technology standards;
 
   
different pricing environments, longer sales cycles, longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
 
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increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
 
   
difficulties in managing and staffing international operations including the proper classification of independent contractors and other contingent workers, differing employer/employee relationships and local employment laws;
 
   
increased costs involved with recruiting and retaining an expanded employee population outside the United States through cash and equity-based incentive programs and unexpected legal costs and regulatory restrictions in issuing our shares to employees outside the United States;
 
   
global political and regulatory changes that may lead to restrictions on immigration and travel for our employees;
 
   
fluctuations in exchange rates that may decrease the value of our foreign-based revenue;
 
   
potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax (or other tax) systems, restrictions on the repatriation of earnings, and transfer pricing requirements; and
 
   
permanent establishment risks and complexities in connection with international payroll, tax and social security requirements for international employees.
Additionally, operating in international markets also requires significant management attention and financial resources. We cannot be certain that the investment and additional resources required in establishing operations in other countries will produce desired levels of revenue or profitability.
Compliance with laws and regulations applicable to our global operations also substantially increases our cost of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. We have limited experience in marketing, selling and supporting our platform outside of the United States. Our limited experience in operating our business internationally increases the risk that any potential future expansion efforts that we may undertake will not be successful. If we invest substantial time and resources to expand our international operations and are unable to do so successfully and in a timely manner, our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows will suffer. We may be unable to keep current with changes in government requirements as they change from time to time. Failure to comply with these regulations could harm our business. In many countries, it is common for others to engage in business practices that are prohibited by our internal policies and procedures or other regulations applicable to us. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws and policies, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, contractors, partners and agents will comply with these laws and policies. Violations of laws or key control policies by our employees, contractors, partners or agents could result in delays in revenue recognition, financial reporting misstatements, enforcement actions, reputational harm, disgorgement of profits, fines, civil and criminal penalties, damages, injunctions, other collateral consequences or the prohibition of the importation or exportation of our solutions and could harm our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks and costs, including the ability to engage with customers in new geographies, exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, that can adversely affect our business, financial condition, revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
We derive a significant portion of revenue from our customers in the United States. We are continuing to expand our international operations as part of our growth strategy. However, there are a variety of risks and costs associated with our international sales and operations, which include making investments prior to the proven adoption of our solutions, the cost of conducting our business internationally and hiring and training international employees and the costs associated with complying with local law. Furthermore, we cannot predict the rate at which our platform and solutions will be accepted in international markets by potential customers. We currently have sales, customer support and engineering personnel outside the United States in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada, and have started the process of establishing a sales presence in Germany; however, our sales, support and engineering organization outside the United States is substantially smaller than our U.S. sales organization. We believe our ability to attract new customers to subscribe to our platform or to
 
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attract existing customers to renew or expand their use of our platform is directly correlated to the level of engagement we obtain with the customer. To the extent we are unable to effectively engage with
non-U.S.
customers due to our limited sales force capacity, we may be unable to effectively grow in international markets.
As our international operations expand, our exposure to the effects of fluctuations in currency exchange rates grows. While we has primarily transacted with customers in U.S. dollars, historically, we expect to continue to expand the number of transactions with our customers that are denominated in foreign currencies in the future. Additionally, fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies may make our subscriptions more expensive for international customers, which could harm our business. Additionally, we incur expenses for employee compensation and other operating expenses at our
non-U.S.
locations in the local currency for such locations. Fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies could result in an increase to the U.S. dollar equivalent of such expenses. These fluctuations could cause our results of operations to differ from our expectations or the expectations of our investors. Additionally, such foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations could make it more difficult to detect underlying trends in our business and results of operations.
Our international operations may subject us to greater than anticipated tax liabilities.
The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions depends on the application of the tax laws of various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities, changes in tax rates, new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies, and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for pricing intercompany transactions pursuant to our intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest, and penalties, which could result in
one-time
tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows, and lower overall profitability of our operations. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency. Similarly, a taxing authority could assert that we are subject to tax in a jurisdiction where we believe we have not established a taxable connection, often referred to as a “permanent establishment” under international tax treaties, and such an assertion, if successful, could increase our expected tax liability in one or more jurisdictions.
Our quantum computing systems may not be compatible with some or all industry-standard software and hardware in the future, which could harm our business.
We have focused our efforts on creating quantum computing hardware, the operating system for such hardware, a suite of
low-level
software programs that optimize execution of quantum algorithms on our hardware, application programing interfaces (“APIs”) to access our systems, software development kits (“SDKs”) for system and application developers, and quantum programming languages for
low-
and high-level application developers. The industry is rapidly evolving, and customers have many choices for programming languages, application libraries, APIs, and SDKs, some of which may not be compatible with our own languages, APIs or SDKs. Our quantum computing solutions are designed today to be compatible with most major quantum software development kits, including Qiskit, Cirq, and Open QASM, all of which are open source. If a proprietary (not open source) software toolset became the standard for quantum application development in the future by a competitor, usage of our hardware might be limited as a result which would have a negative impact on the Company. Similarly, if a piece of hardware became a necessary component for quantum computing (for instance, quantum networking) and we cannot integrate with, the result might have a negative impact on the Company.
If our customers are unable to achieve compatibility between other software and hardware and our hardware, it could impact our relationships with such customers or with customers, generally, if the incompatibility is more widespread. In addition, the mere announcement of an incompatibility problem relating to our products with higher level software tools could cause us to suffer reputational harm and/or lead to a loss of customers. Any adverse impacts from the incompatibility of our quantum computing solutions could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
 
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We may rely heavily on future collaborative partners and third parties to develop key, relevant algorithms and programming to make our quantum systems commercially viable.
We have entered into, and may enter into, strategic partnerships to develop and commercialize our current and future research and development programs with other companies to accomplish one or more of the following:
 
   
obtain expertise;
 
   
obtain sales and marketing services or support;
 
   
obtain equipment and facilities;
 
   
develop relationships with potential future customers; and
 
   
generate revenue.
We may not be successful in establishing or maintaining suitable partnerships, and we may not be able to negotiate collaboration agreements having terms satisfactory to the Company, or at all. Failure to make or maintain these arrangements or a delay or failure in a collaborative partner’s performance under any such arrangements could harm our business and financial condition.
System security and data protection breaches, as well as cyber-attacks, including state-sponsored attacks, could disrupt our operations, which may damage our reputation and adversely affect our business.
Cyber-attacks,
denial-of-service
attacks, ransomware attacks, business email compromises, computer malware, viruses, and social engineering (including phishing) are prevalent in the technology industry and our customers’ industries. In addition, we may experience attacks, unavailable systems, unauthorized access or disclosure due to employee theft or misuse,
denial-of-service
attacks, sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors, and advanced persistent threat intrusions. The techniques may be used to sabotage or to obtain unauthorized access to our platform, systems, networks, or physical facilities where our quantum computers are stored, and we may be unable to implement adequate preventative measures or stop security breaches while they are occurring. U.S. law enforcement agencies have indicated to us that quantum computing technology is of particular interest to certain malicious cyber threat actors. In addition, our cybersecurity risk could be increased as a result of the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the related sanctions imposed against Russia.
Our platform is built to be accessed through third-party public cloud providers such as AWS. These providers may also experience breaches and attacks to their products which may impact our systems. Data security breaches may also result from
non-technical
means, such as actions by an employee with access to our systems. While we and our third-party cloud providers have implemented security measures designed to protect against security breaches, these measures could fail or may be insufficient, resulting in the unauthorized disclosure, modification, misuse, destruction, or loss of sensitive or confidential information.
Actual or perceived breaches of our security measures or the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data about the Company, our partners, our customers or third parties could expose we and the parties affected to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, resulting in litigation and potential liability, paying damages, regulatory inquiries or actions, damage to our brand and reputation or other harm to our business. Our efforts to prevent and overcome these challenges could increase our expenses and may not be successful. If we fail to detect or remediate a security breach in a timely manner, or a breach otherwise affects our customers, or if we suffers a cyber-attack that impacts our ability to operate our platform, we may suffer material damage to our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Unfavorable conditions in our industry or the global economy, could limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our results of operations.
Our results of operations may vary based on the impact of changes in our industry or the global economy on we or our customers and potential customers. Negative conditions in the general economy both in
 
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the United States and abroad, including conditions resulting from changes in gross domestic product growth, financial and credit market fluctuations, international trade relations, pandemics (such as the
COVID-19
pandemic), political turmoil, natural catastrophes, warfare, and terrorist attacks on the United States or elsewhere, could cause a decrease in business investments, including the progress on development of quantum technologies, and negatively affect the growth of our business. In addition, in challenging economic times, our current or potential future customers may experience cash flow problems and as a result may modify, delay or cancel plans to purchase our products and services. Additionally, if our customers are not successful in generating sufficient revenue or are unable to secure financing, they may not be able to pay, or may delay payment of, accounts receivable due to it. Moreover, our key suppliers may reduce their output or become insolvent, thereby adversely impacting our ability to manufacture our products. Furthermore, uncertain economic conditions may make it more difficult for us to raise funds through borrowings or private or public sales of debt or equity securities. We cannot predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic slowdown, instability or recovery, generally or within any particular industry.
Government actions and regulations, such as tariffs and trade protection measures, may limit our ability to obtain products from our suppliers or sell our products and services to customers. Political challenges between the United States and countries in which our suppliers are located, and changes to trade policies, including tariff rates and customs duties, trade relations between the United States and those countries and other macroeconomic issues could adversely impact our business. The United States administration has announced tariffs on certain products imported into the United States, and some countries have imposed tariffs in response to the actions of the United States. There is also a possibility of future tariffs, trade protection measures or other restrictions imposed on our products or on our customers by the United States or other countries that could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our technology may be deemed a matter of national security and as such our customer base may be tightly restricted. We may accept government grants that place restrictions on the business’ ability to operate.
Unstable market and economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and share price.
The global economy, including credit and financial markets, has experienced extreme volatility and disruptions, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates, increases in inflation rates, higher interest rates and uncertainty about economic stability. For example, the
COVID-19
pandemic resulted in widespread unemployment, economic slowdown and extreme volatility in the capital markets. Similarly, the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine has created extreme volatility in the global capital markets and is expected to have further global economic consequences, including disruptions of the global supply chain and energy markets. Any such volatility and disruptions may have adverse consequences on us or the third parties on whom we rely. If the equity and credit markets deteriorate, including as a result of political unrest or war, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to obtain in a timely manner or on favorable terms, more costly or more dilutive. Increased inflation rates can adversely affect us by increasing our costs, including labor and employee benefit costs. In addition, higher inflation could also increase our customers’ operating costs, which could result in reduced budgets for our customers and potentially less demand for our systems. Any significant increases in inflation and related increase in interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If our cost and time estimates for fixed fee arrangements do not accurately anticipate the cost of servicing those arrangements, we could experience losses on these arrangements and our profitability could be reduced.
Our development contracts are typically fixed fee arrangements invoiced on a milestone basis. If we underestimate the amount of effort required to deliver on a contract and/or the period of time required to achieve the milestone, our profitability could be reduced. If the actual costs of completing the contract exceed the agreed upon fixed price, we would incur a loss on the arrangement.
 
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We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future. If we fail to remediate the material weakness or if we otherwise fail to establish and maintain effective control over financial reporting, it may adversely affect our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results, and may adversely affect investor confidence and business operations.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
In connection with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the nine months ended October 31, 2021, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting related to accounting for complex warrant instruments as a result of an error in not properly recording a liability for the warrant with respect to a warrant to purchase stock issued by us to Trinity Capital Inc. that was subsequently cancelled and reissued for a new warrant in connection with an amendment to our loan and security agreement as described in Note 7 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Our management has concluded that this material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting is due to the fact that at the time we identified the material weakness, we were a private company with limited resources and did not have the necessary business processes and related internal controls formally designed and implemented to address the accounting and financial reporting requirements related to this complex transaction.
Our management is in the process of developing a remediation plan and is taking steps to remediate the material weakness. The material weakness will be considered remediated when our management designs and implements effective controls that operate for a sufficient period of time and our management has concluded, through testing, that these controls are effective. Our management will continue to monitor the effectiveness of our remediation plan and will make the changes it determines to be appropriate. Although we intend to complete this remediation process as quickly as practicable, we cannot at this time estimate how long it will take, and our initiatives may not prove to be successful in remediating the material weakness.
Furthermore, we cannot assure that the measures we have taken to date, and actions we may take in the future, will be sufficient to remediate the control deficiencies that led to our material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting or that they will prevent or avoid potential future material weaknesses. Further, additional weaknesses in our disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting may be discovered in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement could limit our ability to prevent or detect a misstatement of our accounts or disclosures that could result in a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements. In such case, we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports in addition to the listing requirements of the Nasdaq, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting and our stock price may decline as a result.
Acquisitions, divestitures, strategic investments and strategic partnerships could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition and operating results.
We may pursue growth opportunities by acquiring complementary businesses, solutions or technologies through strategic transactions, investments or partnerships. The identification of suitable acquisition, strategic investment or strategic partnership candidates can be costly and time consuming and can distract our management team from our current operations. If such strategic transactions require us to seek additional debt or equity financing, we may not be able to obtain such financing on terms favorable to us or at all, and such transactions may adversely affect our liquidity and capital structure. Any strategic transaction might not strengthen our competitive position, may increase some of our risks, and may be viewed negatively by our customers, partners or investors. Even if we successfully complete a strategic transaction, we may not be able to effectively integrate the acquired business, technology, systems, control environment, solutions, personnel or
 
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operations into our business. We may experience unexpected changes in how we are required to account for strategic transactions pursuant to U.S. GAAP and may not achieve the anticipated benefits of any strategic transaction. We may incur unexpected costs, claims or liabilities that we incur during the strategic transaction or that we assume from the acquired company, or we may discover adverse conditions post acquisition for which we have limited or no recourse.
We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by the global
COVID-19
pandemic, its various strains or future pandemics.
We face various risks related to epidemics, pandemics, and other outbreaks, including the recent
COVID-19
pandemic, including newly discovered strains of the virus. In response to the
COVID-19
pandemic, governments have implemented significant measures, including, but not limited to, business closures, quarantines, travel restrictions,
shelter-in-place,
stay-at-home
and other social distancing directives, intended to control the spread of the virus. Companies have also taken precautions, such as requiring employees to work remotely, imposing travel restrictions and temporarily closing businesses. To the extent that these restrictions remain in place, additional prevention and mitigation measures are implemented in the future, or there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of these or any other measures to contain or treat
COVID-19
or future pandemics, there is likely to be an adverse impact on our potential customers, our employees and global economic conditions, and consumer confidence and spending, which could materially and adversely affect our operations and demand for our products.
The spread of
COVID-19
has and may continue to impact our suppliers by disrupting the manufacturing, delivery and the overall supply chain of parts required to manufacture our quantum computers. In addition, various aspects of our business cannot be conducted remotely, such as the fabrication of quantum processors and the assembly of our quantum computers. These measures by government authorities may remain in place for a significant period of time and they are likely to continue to adversely affect our future manufacturing plans, sales and marketing activities, business and results of operations. We may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, suppliers, vendors and business partners.
Due to the fluid nature of the
COVID-19
pandemic, uncertainties regarding the related economic impact are likely to result in sustained market turmoil, which could also negatively impact our business, financial condition and cash flows. During 2020, we scaled back our recruiting efforts to control costs and experienced weeklong onsite work stoppages due to quarantining related to the
COVID-19
pandemic. The extent of
COVID-19’s
effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration, spread and intensity of the pandemic, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict considering the rapidly evolving landscape. As a result, it is not currently possible to ascertain the overall impact of
COVID-19
on our business. However, if the pandemic continues to persist as a severe worldwide health crisis, the disease could negatively impact our business, financial condition results of operations and cash flows, and may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “
Risk Factors
” section.
Even after the
COVID-19
pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience an adverse impact to our business as a result of
COVID-19’s
global economic impact, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future.
Our facilities or operations could be damaged or adversely affected as a result of prolonged power outages, natural disasters and other catastrophic events.
Our facilities or operations could be adversely affected by events outside of our control, such as natural disasters, and other calamities. We cannot assure you that any backup systems will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures,
break-ins,
war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to interruptions, breakdowns, system
 
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failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause delays in development and fabrication, the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide services.
Risks Related to Litigation and Government Regulation
State, federal and foreign laws and regulations related to privacy, data use and security could adversely affect us.
We are subject to state and federal laws and regulations related to privacy, data use and security. In addition, in recent years, there has been a heightened legislative and regulatory focus on data security, including requiring consumer notification in the event of a data breach. Legislation has been introduced in Congress and there have been several Congressional hearings addressing these issues. From time to time, Congress has considered, and may do so again, legislation establishing requirements for data security and response to data breaches that, if implemented, could affect us by increasing our costs of doing business. In addition, several states have enacted privacy or security breach legislation requiring varying levels of consumer notification in the event of a security breach. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which enhances consumer protection and privacy rights by granting consumers resident in California new rights with respect to the collection of their personal data and imposing new operational requirements on businesses, went into effect in January 2020. The CCPA includes a statutory damages framework and private rights of action against businesses that fail to comply with certain CCPA terms or implement reasonable security procedures and practices to prevent data breaches. Several other states are considering similar legislation. Foreign governments are raising similar privacy and data security concerns. In particular, the European Union enacted a General Data Protection Regulation. China, Russia, Japan and other countries in Latin America and Asia are also strengthening their privacy laws and the enforcement of privacy and data security requirements. Complying with such laws and regulations may be time-consuming and require additional resources, and could therefore harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Contracts with U.S. government entities subject us to risks including early termination, audits, investigations, sanctions and penalties.
We have several contracts with various government entities, including contracts with NASA, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (“DARPA”), and the Department of Energy (“DOE”), among others, and we may enter into additional contracts with U.S. government entities in the future, which subjects our business to statutes and regulations applicable to companies doing business with the government, including the Federal Acquisition Regulation. These government contracts customarily contain provisions that give the government substantial rights and remedies, many of which are not typically found in commercial contracts and which are unfavorable to contractors. For instance, most U.S. government agencies include provisions that allow the government to unilaterally terminate or modify contracts for convenience, and in that event, the counterparty to the contract may generally recover only its incurred or committed costs and settlement expenses and profit on work completed prior to the termination. If the government terminates a contract for default, the defaulting party may be liable for any extra costs incurred by the government in procuring undelivered items from another source.
In addition, government contracts normally contain additional requirements that may increase our costs of doing business, reduce our profits, and expose us to liability for failure to comply with these terms and conditions. These requirements include, for example:
 
   
specialized disclosure and accounting requirements unique to government contracts;
 
   
financial and compliance audits that may result in potential liability for price adjustments, recoupment of government funds after such funds have been spent, civil and criminal penalties, or administrative sanctions such as suspension or debarment from doing business with the U.S. government;
 
   
public disclosures of certain contract and company information; and
 
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mandatory socioeconomic compliance requirements, including labor requirements,
non-discrimination and
affirmative action programs and environmental compliance requirements.
Government contracts are also generally subject to greater scrutiny by the government, which can initiate reviews, audits and investigations regarding our compliance with government contract requirements. In addition, if we fail to comply with government contracting laws, regulations and contract requirements, our contracts may be subject to termination, and we may be subject to financial and/or other liability under our contracts, the Federal Civil False Claims Act (including treble damages and other penalties), or criminal law. In particular, the False Claims Act’s “whistleblower” provisions also allow private individuals, including present and former employees, to sue on behalf of the U.S. government. Any penalties, damages, fines, suspension, or damages could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.
We are subject to U.S. and foreign anti-corruption, anti-bribery and similar laws, and
non-compliance
with such laws can subject us to criminal or civil liability and harm our business.
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, and other anti-bribery, and anti-corruption laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly to generally prohibit companies, their employees, and their third-party intermediaries from authorizing, promising, offering, providing, soliciting, or accepting, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to or from any person whether in the public or private sector. We may engage with partners and third-party intermediaries to market our services and to obtain necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals. In addition, we or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, and of our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. We cannot provide any assurance that all of our employees and agents will not take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible.
Detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations of anti-corruption laws can require a significant diversion of time, resources, and attention from senior management. In addition, noncompliance with anti-corruption or anti-bribery laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, enforcement actions, fines, damages, other civil or criminal penalties, injunctions, suspension or debarment from contracting with certain persons, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences.
We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets due to licensing requirements and subject us to liability if we are not in compliance with applicable laws.
Our products and technologies are subject to U.S. export control and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations, and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. U.S. export control and economic sanctions laws include restrictions or prohibitions on the sale or supply of certain products, technologies, and services to U.S. Government embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments, persons and entities. In addition, certain products and technology may be subject to export licensing or approval requirements. Exports of our products and technology must be made in compliance with export control and sanctions laws and regulations. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges; fines, which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers; and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.
 
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In addition, changes in our products or technologies or changes in applicable export or import laws and regulations may create delays in the introduction and sale of our products and technologies in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products and technologies to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Any change in export or import laws and regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing laws and regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such laws and regulations, could also result in decreased use of our products and technologies, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products and technologies to existing or potential customers. Any decreased use of our products and technologies or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products and technologies would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect to incur significant costs in complying with these regulations. Regulations related to quantum computing are currently evolving and we face risks associated with changes to these regulations.
Our business is exposed to risks associated with litigation, investigations and regulatory proceedings.
We may in the future face legal, administrative and regulatory proceedings, claims, demands and/or investigations involving stockholder, consumer, competition and/or other issues relating to our business on a global basis. Litigation and regulatory proceedings are inherently uncertain, and adverse rulings could occur, including monetary damages, or an injunction stopping us from engaging in certain business practices, or requiring other remedies, such as compulsory licensing of patents. An unfavorable outcome or settlement may result in a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial position and overall trends. In addition, regardless of the outcome, litigation can be costly, time-consuming, and disruptive to our operations. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could damage our reputation and make it more difficult to compete effectively or to obtain adequate insurance in the future. In addition, the laws and regulations our business is subject to are complex and change frequently. We may be required to incur significant expense to comply with changes in, or remedy violations of, these laws and regulations.
Furthermore, while we maintain insurance for certain potential liabilities, such insurance does not cover all types and amounts of potential liabilities and is subject to various exclusions as well as caps on amounts recoverable. Even if we believe a claim is covered by insurance, insurers may dispute our entitlement to recovery for a variety of potential reasons, which may affect the timing and, if the insurers prevail, the amount of our recovery.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.
We may become subject to product liability claims, even those without merit, which could harm our business prospects, operating results, and financial condition. We may face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our quantum computers do not perform as expected or malfunction. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our quantum computers and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of other future quantum computers, which would have material adverse effects on our brand, business, prospects and operating results. Any insurance coverage might not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages either in excess of our coverage, or outside of our coverage, may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition. We may not be able to secure additional product liability insurance coverage on commercially acceptable terms or at reasonable costs when needed, particularly if we do face liability for our products and are forced to make a claim under our policy.
We are subject to requirements relating to environmental and safety regulations and environmental remediation matters which could adversely affect our business, results of operation and reputation.
We are subject to numerous federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations governing, among other things, solid and hazardous waste storage, treatment and disposal, and remediation of releases of
 
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hazardous materials. There are significant capital, operating and other costs associated with compliance with these environmental laws and regulations. Environmental laws and regulations may become more stringent in the future, which could increase costs of compliance or require us to manufacture with alternative technologies and materials.
Federal, state and local authorities also regulate a variety of matters, including, but not limited to, health, safety and permitting in addition to the environmental matters discussed above. New legislation and regulations may require us to make material changes to our operations, resulting in significant increases to the cost of production.
Our manufacturing process will have hazards such as but not limited to hazardous materials, machines with moving parts, and high voltage and/or high current electrical systems typical of large manufacturing equipment and related safety incidents. There may be safety incidents that damage machinery or product, slow or stop production, or harm employees. Consequences may include litigation, regulation, fines, increased insurance premiums, mandates to temporarily halt production, workers’ compensation claims, or other actions that impact our brand, finances, or ability to operate.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
Our failure to obtain, maintain and protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect and commercialize our proprietary products and technology and cause us to lose our competitive advantage.
Our success depends, in significant part, on our ability to obtain, maintain, enforce and defend our intellectual property rights, including patents and trade secrets. We rely upon a combination of the intellectual property protections afforded by patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements and other contractual protections, to establish, maintain and enforce rights in our proprietary technologies. In addition, we seek to protect our intellectual property rights through nondisclosure and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants, and through
non-disclosure
agreements with business partners and other third parties.
However, we may not be able to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property. Our trade secrets may also be compromised, which could cause us to lose our competitive advantage. Third parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain, use or infringe our intellectual property. Monitoring and detecting unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and the steps we have taken or will take to prevent infringement or misappropriation may not be sufficient. Any enforcement efforts we undertake, including litigation, could be time-consuming and expensive and could divert management’s attention, which could harm Our business, results of operations, and financial condition. In addition, existing intellectual property laws and contractual remedies may afford less protection than needed to safeguard our intellectual property portfolio, and third parties may develop competitive offerings in a manner that leaves us with limited means to enforce our intellectual property rights against them.
Patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws vary significantly throughout the world. A number of foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. Therefore, our intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the United States and efforts to protect against the unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights, technology and other proprietary rights may be more expensive and difficult outside of the United States.
Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors using our intellectual property to offer products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
 
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Our inability to secure patent protection or enforce our patent rights could have a material adverse effect on our ability to prevent others from commercializing similar products or technology.
The application and registration of patents involves complex legal and factual questions. As a result, we cannot be certain that the patent applications that we files will result in patents being issued, or that our patents and any future patents that do issue will afford protection against competitors with similar technology. Numerous patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology, and this may make it difficult for us to obtain certain patent coverage on our own. Any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable. Furthermore, patent applications filed in foreign countries are subject to laws, rules and procedures that differ from those of the United States, and thus we cannot be certain that foreign patent applications related to issued U.S. patents will be issued.
Even if our patent applications succeed, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope in the future. The rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with meaningful protection or competitive advantages. The intellectual property rights of others could bar us from licensing and exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications, and the claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. In addition, patents issued to us may be infringed upon or designed around by others and others may obtain patents that it needs to license or design around, either of which would increase costs and may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We may face patent infringement and other intellectual property claims that could be costly to defend, result in injunctions and significant damage awards, or limit our ability to use certain key technologies in the future, all of which could harm our business.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our products, services and technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties. However, we may not be aware that our products, services or technologies are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating third-party intellectual property rights and such third parties may bring claims alleging such infringement, misappropriation or violation.
For example, there may be issued patents of which we are unaware, held by third parties that, if found to be valid and enforceable, could be alleged to be infringed by our current or future products, services or technologies. Also, because patent applications can take years to issue and are often afforded confidentiality for some period of time, there may currently be pending applications, unknown to us, that later result in issued patents that could cover our current or future products, services or technologies. The strength of our defenses will depend on the rights asserted, the interpretation of these rights, and our ability to invalidate the asserted rights. However, we could be unsuccessful in advancing
non-infringement
and/or invalidity arguments in our defense.
Companies that have developed and are developing technology are often required to defend against litigation claims based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights. Our products, services or technologies may not be able to withstand third-party claims against their use. In addition, as compared to us, many companies have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them. If a third party is able to obtain an injunction preventing us from using or accessing such third-party intellectual property rights, or if we cannot license or develop alternative technology for any infringing aspect of our business, we may be forced to limit or stop sales of our products, services or technologies or cease business activities related to such intellectual property. Although we carry general liability insurance, our insurance may not cover potential claims of this type or may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that may be imposed. We cannot predict the outcome of lawsuits and cannot ensure that the results of any such actions will
 
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not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and harm our business and operating results. Further, there could be public announcements of the intellectual property litigation, and if securities analysts, investors or others perceive the potential impact to be negative or risks to be substantial, it could have an adverse effect on the price of our common stock.
 
   
Any intellectual property litigation to which we might become a party, or for which we are required to provide indemnification, regardless of the merit of the claim or our defenses, may require us to do one or more of the following:
 
   
cease selling or using solutions or services that incorporate the intellectual property rights that allegedly infringe, misappropriate or violate the intellectual property of a third party;
 
   
make substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments or other costs or damages;
 
   
obtain a license, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, to sell or use the relevant technology;
 
   
redesign the allegedly infringing solutions to avoid infringement, misappropriation or violation, which could be costly, time-consuming or impossible; or
 
   
indemnify third parties using our products or services.
The occurrence of infringement claims may grow as the market for our products, services and technologies grows. Accordingly, our exposure to damages resulting from infringement claims could increase and this could further exhaust our financial and management resources.
We rely on certain open-source software in our quantum systems. If licensing terms change, our business may be adversely affected.
Our platform utilizes software licensed to us by third-party authors under “open-source” licenses and we expect to continue to utilize open-source software in the future. The use of open-source software may entail greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software, as open-source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. To the extent that our platform depends upon the successful operation of the open-source software we use, any undetected errors or defects in this open-source software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our platform, delay new solution introductions, result in a failure of our platform and injure our reputation. For example, undetected errors or defects in open-source software could render us vulnerable to breaches or security attacks, and, in conjunction, make our systems more vulnerable to data breaches.
Furthermore, some open-source licenses require the release of proprietary source code combined with, linked to or distributed with such open-source software to be released to the public. If we combine, link or distribute our proprietary software with open-source software in a specific manner, we could, under some open-source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar solutions with lower development effort and time and ultimately put us at a competitive disadvantage.
Although we monitor our use of open-source software to avoid subjecting our platform to conditions we do not intend to attach to such platform or our proprietary code, we cannot assure you that our processes for controlling such use will be effective. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open-source software license, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue operating using our solution on terms that are not economically feasible, to
re-engineer
our solution or the supporting computational infrastructure to discontinue use of code, or to make generally available, in source code form, portions of our proprietary code. This could allow our competitors to create similar solutions with lower development effort and time and ultimately put us at a competitive disadvantage.
 
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Some of our intellectual property has been or may be conceived or developed through government-funded research and thus may be subject to federal regulations providing for certain rights for the U.S. government or imposing certain obligations on us, such as a license to the U.S. government under such intellectual property,
“march-in”
rights, certain reporting requirements and a preference for U.S.-based companies, and compliance with such regulations may limit our exclusive rights and our ability to contract with
non-U.S.
manufacturers.
As a result, the U.S. government may have certain rights to intellectual property embodied in our current or future product candidates pursuant to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, or the Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act. These U.S. government rights include a
non-exclusive,
non-transferable,
irrevocable worldwide license to use inventions for any governmental purpose. In addition, the U.S. government has the right, under certain limited circumstances, to require the licensor to grant exclusive, partially exclusive or
non-exclusive
licenses to any of these inventions to a third party if it determines that (1) adequate steps have not been taken to commercialize the invention, (2) government action is necessary to meet public health or safety needs or (3) government action is necessary to meet requirements for public use under federal regulations (also referred to as
“march-in”
rights). The U.S. government also has the right to take title to these inventions if the licensor fails to disclose the invention to the government or fails to file an application to register the intellectual property within specified time limits. Intellectual property generated under a government funded program is also subject to certain reporting requirements, compliance with which may require us to expend substantial resources. In addition, the U.S. government requires that any products embodying any of these inventions or produced through the use of any of these inventions be manufactured substantially in the United States, and some of our license agreements require that we comply with this requirement. This preference for U.S. industry may be waived by the federal agency that provided the funding if the owner or assignee of the intellectual property can show that reasonable but unsuccessful efforts have been made to grant licenses on similar terms to potential licensees that would be likely to manufacture the products substantially in the United States or that under the circumstances domestic manufacture is not commercially feasible. To the extent any of our owned or licensed future intellectual property is also generated through the use of U.S. government funding, the provisions of the Bayh-Dole Act may similarly apply.
Additional Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities
The price of our common stock and public warrants may be volatile.
The price of our common stock and public warrants may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including, without limitation:
 
   
our ability to meet our technological milestones;
 
   
changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;
 
   
variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;
 
   
material and adverse impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic or the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the related sanctions imposed against Russia on the markets and the broader global economy;
 
   
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
 
   
publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;
 
   
the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
 
   
our failure or the failure of our competitors to meet analysts’ projections or guidance that we or our competitors may give to the market;
 
   
additions and departures of key personnel;
 
   
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
 
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commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving the Company;
 
   
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
 
   
the volume of shares of common stock available for public sale, including the significant percentage of shares of common stock being offered for resale pursuant to this prospectus; and
 
   
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, foreign currency fluctuations, international tariffs, social, political and economic risks and acts of war or terrorism.
These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our common stock and our warrants regardless of the operating performance of the Company. In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation. If we are involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from our business regardless of the outcome of such litigation.
We may fail to comply with the rules that apply to public companies, including Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which could result in sanctions or other penalties that would adversely impact our business.
As a public company, and particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we will incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company, including costs resulting from public company reporting obligations under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, and regulations regarding corporate governance practices. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the rules of the SEC, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq, and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. We have begun to hire additional accounting, finance, and other personnel in connection with our becoming, and our efforts to comply with the requirements of being, a public company, and our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time towards maintaining compliance with these requirements. These requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We are currently evaluating these rules and regulations and cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we will incur as a result of recently becoming a public company or the timing of such costs. Any changes we make to comply with these obligations may not be sufficient to allow us to satisfy our obligations as a public company on a timely basis, or at all. These reporting requirements, rules and regulations, coupled with the increase in potential litigation exposure associated with being a public company, could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or board committees or to serve as executive officers, or to obtain certain types of insurance, including directors’ and officers’ insurance, on acceptable terms.
Pursuant to Sarbanes-Oxley Act Section 404, we will be required to furnish a report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting in our Annual Reports on Form
10-K
with the SEC. In order to continue to maintain effective internal controls to support growth and public company requirements, we will need additional financial personnel, systems and resources. However, while we remain an emerging growth company, we are not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley Act Section 404 within the prescribed period, we will be engaged in a process to enhance our documentation and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants, adopt
 
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a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented, and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that we will not be able to conclude, within the prescribed timeframe or at all, that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Sarbanes-Oxley Act Section 404. We previously have identified a material weakness and if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future, this could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.
We will incur substantial costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives. In addition, key members of our management team have limited experience managing a public company.
As a public company, we will incur substantial legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. For example, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the rules and regulations of the SEC and the listing standards of Nasdaq. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business, financial condition and results of operations. Compliance with these rules and regulations increase our legal and financial compliance costs and increase demand on our systems, particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company. In addition, as a public company, we may be subject to shareholder activism, which can lead to additional substantial costs, distract management and impact the manner in which we operate our business in ways we cannot currently anticipate. As a result of disclosure of information in this prospectus and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition are more visible, which may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors.
Certain members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors, and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage the transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from
the day-to-day management
of the business, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Concentration of ownership among our executive officers, directors and their respective affiliates may limit other stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and delay or prevent a third party from acquiring control over us.
Our current executive officers and directors and their respective affiliates beneficially own, in the aggregate, approximately 35.2% of outstanding common stock as of March 31, 2022. This significant concentration of ownership may have a negative impact on the trading price for our common stock because investors often perceive disadvantages in owning stock in companies where there is a concentration of ownership in a small number of stockholders. In addition, these stockholders will be able to exercise influence over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of us or our assets. This concentration of ownership could limit other stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control, including a merger, consolidation or other business combination, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control, even if that change in control would benefit the other stockholders.
 
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We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and does not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly and could fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors due to seasonality and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, resulting in a decline in our stock price.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly because of several factors, including:
 
   
labor availability and costs for hourly and management personnel;
 
   
profitability of our products, especially in new markets and due to seasonal fluctuations;
 
   
changes in interest rates;
 
   
impairment of long-lived assets;
 
   
macroeconomic conditions, both nationally and locally;
 
   
negative publicity relating to products we serve;
 
   
changes in consumer preferences and competitive conditions; and
 
   
expansion to new markets.
Reports published by analysts, including projections in those reports that differ from our actual results, could adversely affect the price and trading volume of our securities.
Securities research analysts may establish and publish their own periodic projections for us. These projections may vary widely and may not accurately predict the results we actually achieve. Our share price may decline if our actual results do not match the projections of these securities research analysts. Similarly, if one or more of the analysts who write reports on us downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, our share price or trading volume could decline. If no analysts commence coverage of us, the market price and volume for our securities could be adversely affected.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.
If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum share price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our securities. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of the securities and would impair your ability to sell or purchase the securities when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we can provide no assurance that any action taken by us to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow our securities to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our securities, prevent our securities from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum share price requirement or prevent future
non-compliance
with Nasdaq’s listing requirements. Additionally, if our securities are not listed on, or become delisted from, Nasdaq for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.
 
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Sales of our common stock, or the perception of such sales, by us or the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus in the public market or otherwise could cause the market price for our common stock to decline and certain selling securityholders still may receive significant proceeds.
The sale of shares of our common stock in the public market or otherwise, including sales pursuant to this prospectus, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that it deems appropriate. Resales of our common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Although Supernova Sponsor and the Legacy Rigetti securityholders will be prohibited from transferring any share of common stock until the earlier of (i) the date that is six months following the Closing Date and (ii) the first date on which the daily closing price of common stock has been greater than or equal to $12.00 per share (subject to customary adjustments) for any 20 trading days within a
30-trading-day
period commencing at least 90 days after the Closing Date, in each case, subject to certain customary exceptions, these shares may be sold after the expiration or early termination or release of the respective applicable
lock-up
provisions in the Sponsor Support Agreement with respect to the Supernova Sponsor or Bylaws with respect to the Legacy Rigetti securityholders.
Following the expiration of the applicable
lock-ups
described in this prospectus and as restrictions on resale end and registration statements are available for use, the market price of our common stock could decline if the holders of restricted or locked up shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock.
This prospectus also registers the shares of common stock being offered for resale pursuant to this prospectus include shares that were purchased at prices that may be significantly below the trading price of our common stock and the sale of which would result in the selling securityholder realizing a significant gain. Supernova Sponsor paid (i) $25,000, or approximately $0.004 per share, for the 8,625,000 Founder Shares and (ii) $8.9 million, or $2.00 per warrant, for the 4,450,000 private placement warrants. Subscribers purchased 10,251,000 shares of common stock purchased at a price of $10.00 per share and 4,390,244 shares of common stock at $10.25 per share pursuant to the Subscription Agreements in the PIPE Financing. In connection with the Business Combination, the issuance of 54,263,787 shares of common stock as merger consideration at an acquiror share value of $10.00 per share.
In connection with the Extraordinary General Meeting and the Business Combination, holders of 22,915,538 of Supernova Class A ordinary shares, or 66.4% of the shares with redemption rights, exercised their right to redeem their shares for cash at a redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share, for an aggregate redemption amount of $229,155,380. The shares of common stock being offered for resale pursuant to this prospectus by the selling securityholders represent approximately 63.5% of shares outstanding as of March 31, 2022 (after giving effect to the issuance of shares upon exercise of outstanding public warrants, private placement warrants, Rigetti assumed warrants and options and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units). Given the substantial number of shares of common stock being registered for potential resale by selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus, the sale of shares by the selling securityholders, or the perception in the market that the selling securityholders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could increase the volatility of the market price of our common stock or result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our common stock. Even if our trading price is significantly below $10.00, the offering price for the units offered in Supernova’s IPO, certain of the selling securityholders, including Supernova Sponsor, may still have an incentive to sell shares of our common stock because they purchased the shares at prices lower than the public investors or the current trading price of our common stock. For example, based on the closing price of our common stock of $5.90 as of April 20, 2022,
 
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Supernova Sponsor and other holders of the Founder Shares (assuming all Sponsor Vesting Shares are fully vested) would experience a potential profit of up to approximately $5.90 per share, or up to approximately $50.9 million in the aggregate.
Future issuances of debt securities and equity securities may adversely affect us, including the market price of our common stock and may be dilutive to existing stockholders.
We expect that significant additional capital will be needed in the near future to continue our planned operations. In the future, we may incur debt or issue equity ranking senior to our common stock. Those securities will generally have priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock. Because our decision to issue debt or equity in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of our common stock and be dilutive to existing stockholders. In addition, our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities could be significantly impacted by the resale of shares of common stock by selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus which could result in a significant decline in the trading price of our common stock and potentially hinder our ability to raise capital at terms that are acceptable to us or at all.
We expect to issue additional shares of common stock, including under our equity incentive plans and employee stock purchase plan. Any such issuances would dilute the interest of our shareholders and likely present other risks.
We expect to issue a substantial number of shares of common stock, including under the 2013 Plan, the 2022 Plan and the Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or preferred stock.
Common stock reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to provisions relating to various vesting agreements,
lock-up
agreements and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, as applicable. The aggregate number of shares of our common stock initially reserved for future issuance under the Rigetti Computing, Inc. 2022 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2022 Plan”) is 18,332,215 shares. We intend to file one or more registration statements on Form
S-8
under the Securities Act to register shares of common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock issued pursuant to the 2022 Plan. In addition, we intend to register for resale 19,604,081 shares subject to the Rigetti assumed options and Rigetti assumed RSUs to be issued under Rigetti & Co, Inc. 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2013 Plan”) under a Registration Statement on Form S-8. We also intend to register the issuance of common stock under the Rigetti Computing, Inc. 2022 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “Employee Stock Purchase Plan”), which has an initial reserve of 3,055,370 shares, on a Registration Statement on Form S-8. Any such Form
S-8
registration statements will automatically become effective upon filing. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements may be immediately available for sale in the open market.
Any such issuances of additional shares of common stock or preferred stock:
 
   
may significantly dilute the equity interests of our investors;
 
   
may subordinate the rights of holders of common stock if preferred stock is issued with rights senior to those afforded our common stock;
 
   
could cause a change in control if a substantial number of shares of our common stock are issued, which may affect, among other things, our ability to use our net operating loss carry forwards, if any, and could result in the resignation or removal of our present officers and directors; and
 
   
may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our common stock.
 
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We are currently an “emerging growth company” and “smaller reporting company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and to the extent we have taken advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies or smaller reporting companies, this could make our securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare our performance with other public companies.
We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, our shareholders may not have access to certain information they may deem important. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although circumstances could cause us to lose that status earlier, including if the market value of our Class A ordinary shares held by
non-affiliates
exceeds $700 million as of any June 30 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. We cannot predict whether investors will find our securities less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result of our reliance on these exemptions, the trading prices of our securities may be lower than they otherwise would be, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the trading prices of our securities may be more volatile.
Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to
non-emerging
growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Delaware law and our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover provisions, that limit the ability of stockholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and bylaws of the Company (the “Bylaws”) and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (“DGCL”) contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing an acquisition deemed undesirable by the board of directors of Rigetti (the “Board”) and therefore depress the trading price of our common stock. These provisions could also make it difficult for stockholders to take certain actions, including electing directors who are not nominated by the current members of the Board or taking other corporate actions, including effecting changes in our management. Among other things, the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws include provisions regarding:
 
   
providing for a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms;
 
   
the ability of the Board to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, including “blank check” preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate, including the right to approve an acquisition or other change of control;
 
   
provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the Board;
 
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provide that, subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock, any individual director or directors may be removed only with cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class;
 
   
provide that all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;
 
   
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent or electronic transmission;
 
   
provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide advance notice in writing, and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;
 
   
provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called by the chairperson of the Board, the chief executive officer or by the Board pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors; and
 
   
not provide for cumulative voting rights, therefore allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose.
These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in the Board or management.
The Certificate of Incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the United States federal district courts as the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents.
The Certificate of Incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for state law claims for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer or other employee, or stockholder of Rigetti to Rigetti or our stockholders, (iii) any action or claim against the Company or any current or former director, officer or other employee or stockholder of the Company, arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws, (iv) any action seeking to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws; (v) any action or claim as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and (vi) any action against the Company or any current or former director, officer or other employee or stockholder of the Company, governed by the internal-affairs doctrine of the law of the State of Delaware, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law. The foregoing provisions will not apply to any claims as to which the Delaware Court of Chancery determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of such court, which is rested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than such court (including claims arising under the Exchange Act), or for which such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction, or to any claims arising under the Securities Act and, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the United States federal district courts will be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any action asserting a claim arising under the Securities Act.
Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules or regulations thereunder. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such Securities Act claims. To prevent
 
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having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, the Certificate of Incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, United States federal district courts shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce the forum provision with respect to claims under the federal securities laws.
This choice of forum provision in our Certificate of Incorporation may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provisions, and the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ charter documents has been challenged in legal proceedings. It is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable, and if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in the Certificate of Incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Furthermore, investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and rules and regulations thereunder.
Our warrants are accounted for as liabilities and the changes in value of our warrants could have a material effect on our financial results.
We are subject to complex securities laws and regulations and accounting principles and interpretations. The preparation of our financial statements requires us to interpret accounting principles and guidance and to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported expenses incurred during the reporting periods. We base our interpretations, estimates and judgments on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for the preparation of our financial statements. GAAP presentation is subject to interpretation by the SEC, the Financial Accounting Standards Board and various other bodies formed to interpret and create appropriate accounting principles and guidance. If one of these bodies disagrees with our accounting recognition, measurement or disclosure or any of our accounting interpretations, estimates or assumptions, it may have a significant effect on our reported results and may retroactively affect previously reported results.
On April 12, 2021, the Acting Director of the Division of Corporation Finance and Acting Chief Accountant of the SEC together issued a statement regarding the accounting and reporting considerations for warrants issued by special purpose acquisition companies entitled “Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”)” (the “SEC Statement”). Specifically, the SEC Statement focused on certain settlement terms and provisions related to certain tender offers following a business combination, which terms are similar to those contained in the warrant agreement governing our warrants. As a result of the SEC Statement, Supernova reevaluated the accounting treatment of the 8,625,000 public warrants and 4,450,000 private placement warrants, and determined to classify the warrants as derivative liabilities measured at fair value, with changes in fair value each period reported in earnings.
As a result, included Supernova’s balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 contained elsewhere in this prospectus are derivative liabilities related to embedded features contained within our warrants. Accounting Standards Codification 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”), provides for the remeasurement of the fair value of such derivatives at each balance sheet date, with a resulting
non-cash
gain or loss related to the change in the fair value being recognized in earnings in the statement of operations. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, our financial statements and results of operations may fluctuate quarterly, based on factors, which are outside of our control. Due to the recurring fair value measurement, we expect that we will recognize
non-cash
gains or losses on our warrants each reporting period and that the amount of such gains or losses could be material. The impact of changes in fair value on earnings may have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.
 
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No assurance can be given that additional guidance or new regulations or accounting principles and interpretations will not be released that would require us to reclassify our warrants as liabilities measured at fair value, with changes in fair value reported each period in earnings and/or require a restatement of our financial statements with respect to treatment of the warrants.
Any restatement of our financial results could, among other potential adverse effects:
 
   
result in us incurring substantial costs;
 
   
affect our ability to timely file our periodic reports until the restatement is completed;
 
   
divert the attention of our management and employees from managing our business;
 
   
result in material changes to our historical and future financial results;
 
   
result in investors losing confidence in our operating results;
 
   
subject us to securities class action litigation; and
 
   
cause our stock price to decline.
Our warrants are exercisable for common stock, the exercise of which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders.
As a result of the Business Combination being consummated, outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 13,074,972 shares of common stock became exercisable in accordance with the terms of the warrant agreement. These warrants became exercisable on April 1, 2022. The exercise price of these warrants is $11.50 per share, or approximately $150.4 million, assuming none of the warrants are exercised through “cashless” exercise. To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional shares of common stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of common stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the trading price of our common stock. If the trading price for our common stock is less than $11.50 per share, we believe holders of our public warrants and private placement warrants will be unlikely to exercise their warrants. On April 20, 2022, the last reported sales price of our common stock was $5.90 per share and the last reported sales price of our public warrants was $0.9101 per warrant. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market or the fact that such warrants may be exercised could adversely affect the market price of common stock. However, there is no guarantee that the public warrants will ever be in the money prior to their expiration, and as such, the warrants may expire worthless. See “
—The warrants may never be in the money, and they may expire worthless and the terms of the public warrants may be amended in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment.
The warrants may never be in the money, and they may expire worthless and the terms of the public warrants may be amended in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment.
The exercise price for our warrants is $11.50 per share of common stock. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their public warrants and private placement warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the trading price of our common stock. If the trading price for our common stock is less than $11.50 per share, we believe warrant holders will be unlikely to exercise their warrants. There is no guarantee that the warrants will be in the money following the time they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, and as such, the warrants may expire worthless. Our warrants became exercisable on April 1, 2022.
The warrants were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement between American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and Supernova. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of
 
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the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision or correct any mistake, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding public warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of public warrants. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the public warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment and, solely with respect to any amendment to the terms of the private placement warrants or any provision of the warrant agreement with respect to the private placement warrants, 50% of the number of the then outstanding private placement warrants. Although our ability to amend the terms of the public warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then-outstanding public warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the warrants, convert the warrants into cash, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant.
We may redeem your unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to the holder, thereby making such warrants worthless.
We have the ability to redeem outstanding warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of the common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for share subdivisions, share dividends, rights issuances, subdivisions, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30
trading-day
period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders. If and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force you to: (i) exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefore at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so; (ii) sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants; or (iii) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your warrants.
In addition, we may redeem your warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration at a price of $0.10 per warrant upon a minimum of 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption provided that holders will be able to exercise their warrants prior to redemption for a number of shares of common stock determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our common stock.
The value received upon exercise of the warrants (1) may be less than the value the holders would have received if they had exercised their warrants at a later time where the underlying share price is higher and (2) may not compensate the holders for the value of the warrants, including because the number of shares of common stock received is capped at 0.361 share of common stock per warrant (subject to adjustment) irrespective of the remaining life of the warrants. None of the private placement warrants will be redeemable by us, subject to certain circumstances, so long as they are held by Supernova Sponsor or its permitted transferees.
The warrant agreement designates the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by holders of warrants, which could limit the ability of warrant holders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.
The warrant agreement provides that, subject to applicable law, (i) any action, proceeding or claim against us arising out of or relating in any way to the warrant agreement, including under the Securities Act, will be brought and enforced in the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and (ii) that we irrevocably submit to such jurisdiction, which jurisdiction will be the exclusive forum for any such action, proceeding or claim. Under the warrant agreement, we also agree that we will waive any objection to such exclusive jurisdiction and that such courts represent an inconvenient forum.
 
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Notwithstanding the foregoing, these provisions of the warrant agreement do not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America are the sole and exclusive forum. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of the public warrants or private placement warrants will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions in our warrant agreement.
If any action, the subject matter of which is within the scope of the forum provisions of the warrant agreement, is filed in a court other than a court of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (a “foreign action”) in the name of any holder of the public warrants or private placement warrants, such holder will be deemed to have consented to: (x) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located in the State of New York in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the forum provisions (an “enforcement action”), and (y) having service of process made upon such warrant holder in any such enforcement action by service upon such warrant holder’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such warrant holder.
This
choice-of-forum
provision may limit a warrant holder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with our company, which may discourage such lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of our warrant agreement inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and board of directors.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the common stock and private placement warrants offered by the selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the selling securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
We could potentially receive up to an aggregate of approximately $150.4 million from the exercise of the warrants and approximately $4.2 million from the exercise of the Rigetti assumed warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants for cash. We expect to use any net proceeds from the exercise of the warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants for general corporate purposes. We will have broad discretion over the use of any proceeds from the exercise of the warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants. There is no assurance that the holders of the warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants will elect to exercise any or all of such warrants and such Rigetti assumed warrants. The exercise price of our public warrants and private placement warrants is $11.50 per warrant. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the trading price of our common stock. If the trading price for our common stock is less than $11.50 per share, we believe holders of our public warrants and private placement warrants will be unlikely to exercise their warrants. The weighted average exercise price of the Rigetti assumed warrants is $0.6628 per share. To the extent that the warrants or Rigetti assumed warrants are exercised on a “cashless basis,” the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the warrants and Rigetti assumed warrants will decrease.
 
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DETERMINATION OF OFFERING PRICE
The offering price of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants offered hereby is determined by reference to the exercise price of the warrants of $11.50 per warrant. The public warrants are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “RGTIW.”
We cannot currently determine the price or prices at which shares of our common stock, the private placement warrants may be sold by the selling securityholders under this prospectus.
 
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MARKET INFORMATION FOR SECURITIES AND DIVIDEND POLICY
Market Information
Our common stock and public warrants are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbols “RGTI” and “RGTIW,” respectively. Prior to the consummation of the business combination, Supernova Class A common shares and public warrants were listed on NYSE under the symbols “SNII” and “SNIIW,” respectively. As of March 31, 2022, there were 382 holders of record of our common stock, 1 holder of record of the public warrants and 1 holder of record of the private placement warrants.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any dividends on shares of our common stock. We anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
Equity Compensation Plan
In connection with the business combination, our stockholders approved the Rigetti Computing, Inc. 2022 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2022 Plan”) on February 23, 2022, which became effective immediately upon the Closing.
We intend to file one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register the shares of common stock issued or issuable under the 2022 Plan. Any such Form S-8 registration statement will become effective automatically upon filing. We expect that the initial registration statement on Form S-8 will cover shares of common stock underlying the 2022 Plan. Once these shares are registered, they can be sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to applicable restrictions.
 
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RIGETTI’S MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements, such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions. Any statements that are not statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. When used, the words “believe,” “plan,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “target,” “estimate,” “expect,” “will,” “continue,” “project,” and the like, and/or future tense or conditional constructions (“will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” etc.), or similar expressions, identify certain of these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those we describe under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Our actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of a variety of factors.
For purposes of this discussion, “Rigetti,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Rigetti Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, unless the context otherwise requires.
Overview
On October 5, 2021, pursuant to an agreement and plan of merger (the “Holding Company Merger Agreement”) by and among Rigetti & Co, Inc., Rigetti Holdings, Inc. and Rigetti Intermediate Merger Sub, Inc., Rigetti Intermediate Merger Sub, Inc. merged with and into Rigetti & Co, Inc., with Rigetti & Co, Inc. surviving such merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of Rigetti Holdings, Inc., with all of the outstanding equity securities of Rigetti & Co, Inc. exchanged for identical equity securities of Rigetti Holdings, Inc. and on October 6, 2021, Rigetti & Co, Inc. was converted into a Delaware limited liability company and continues as “Rigetti & Co, LLC.” As the transactions described above were among entities under common control and the exchange was made on a
one-for-one
basis, this merger had no impact on the historical financial statements of Rigetti & Co, Inc. The financial results of Rigetti Holdings, Inc. refer to the financial results of Rigetti & Co, Inc. and Rigetti & Co, LLC.
We build quantum computers and the superconducting quantum processors that power them. We believe quantum computing represents one of the most transformative emerging capabilities in the world today. By leveraging quantum mechanics, we believe our quantum computers process information in fundamentally new, more powerful ways than classical computers. When scaled, it is anticipated that these systems will be poised to solve problems of staggering computational complexity at unprecedented speed.
With the goal of unlocking this opportunity, we have developed the world’s first multi-chip quantum processor for scalable quantum computing systems. We believe that this patented and patent pending, modular chip architecture is the building block for new generations of quantum processors that we expect to achieve a clear advantage over classical computers.
Our long-term business model centers on revenue generated from quantum computing systems made accessible via the cloud in the form of Quantum Computing as a Service (“QCaaS”) products. Additionally, we are working to further develop a revenue stream and forging important customer relationships by entering into technology development contracts with various partners.
We are a vertically integrated company. We own and operate
Fab-1,
a dedicated and integrated laboratory and manufacturing facility, through which we own the means of producing our breakthrough multi-chip quantum processor technology. We leverage our chips through a full-stack product development approach, from quantum
 
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chip design and manufacturing through cloud delivery. We believe this full-stack development approach offers both the fastest and lowest risk path to building commercially valuable quantum computers.
We have been generating revenue since 2018 through partnerships with government agencies and commercial organizations; however, we have not yet generated profits. We have incurred significant operating losses since inception. Our net losses were $38.2 million for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, and $26.1 million for the year ended January 31, 2021, and we expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future as we expect to continue to invest in research and development infrastructure. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $207.1 million.
The Business Combination and PIPE Financing
On October 6, 2021, Supernova entered into the Merger Agreement by and among Supernova, First Merger Sub, Second Merger Sub, and Legacy Rigetti. On March 2, 2022, the Business Combination was consummated. In connection with the Domestication, Supernova changed its name to “Rigetti Computing, Inc.”
While the legal acquirer in the Merger Agreement is Supernova, for financial accounting and reporting purposes under GAAP, Rigetti is the accounting acquirer and the Merger is accounted for as a “reverse recapitalization.” A reverse recapitalization does not result in a new basis of accounting, and the financial statements of Rigetti represent the continuation of the financial statements of Rigetti in many respects. Under this method of accounting, Supernova is treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. For accounting purposes, Rigetti is deemed to be the accounting acquirer in the transaction and, consequently, the transaction is treated as a recapitalization of Rigetti (i.e., a capital transaction involving the issuance of stock by Supernova for the stock of Rigetti).
Upon consummation of the Business Combination, the most significant change in Rigetti’s reported financial position and results of operations is an increase in cash (as compared to Rigetti’s balance sheet at December 31, 2021) of $204.9 million, including $147.5 million in gross proceeds from the PIPE Financing offset by transaction specific expenses. Total direct and incremental transaction costs of Supernova and Rigetti totaled approximately $46.4 million, substantially all of which is offset to
additional-paid-in-capital
as costs in connection with the reverse recapitalization.
As a result of the Business Combination, Rigetti became subject to the reporting requirements under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and listing standards of the Nasdaq Capital Market, which will necessitate Rigetti to hire additional personnel and implement procedures and processes to address such public company requirements. Rigetti expects to incur additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees, and additional internal and external accounting, legal and administrative resources.
COVID- 19 Update
The
COVID-19
pandemic continues to evolve rapidly and we intend to continue to monitor it closely.
The evolution of the virus is unpredictable and any resurgence may slow down our ability to develop our quantum computing products and related services. The
COVID-19
pandemic could limit the ability of suppliers and business partners to perform, including third-party suppliers’ ability to provide components, services and materials. We may also experience an increase in the cost of raw materials.
The full impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic continues to evolve as of the date of the filing of this prospectus. As such, the full magnitude of the pandemic’s effect on our financial condition, liquidity and future results of operations is uncertain. Management continues to actively monitor our financial condition, liquidity, operations, suppliers, industry and workforce.
 
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Impacts of the
COVID-19
pandemic, some of which we have already experienced, include those described throughout the “Risk Factors” section included in this prospectus, including “
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States or worldwide could adversely affect our business
.”
Change in Fiscal Year
In October 2021, the board of directors of Legacy Rigetti (the “Legacy Rigetti Board”) approved a change to our fiscal
year-end
from January 31 to December 31, effective December 31, 2021. We believe the
year-end
change is important and useful to our financial statement users to allow for increased comparability with our industry peers. As a result of this change, our fiscal year 2021 covers a period of 11 months from February 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021. Financial statements for the prior fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 continue to be presented on the basis of the previous fiscal year end which includes 12 months ended January 31, 2021.
Key Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We generate revenue through our QCaaS offerings, as well as from our development contracts and other services including training and provision of quantum computing components. Development contracts are generally multi-year,
non-recurring
arrangements pursuant to which we provide professional services supporting collaborative research in practical applications of quantum computing to technology and business problems within the customer’s industry or organization. We may also assist the customer in developing quantum algorithms and applications. QCaaS revenue is recognized on a ratable basis over the contract term or on a usage basis, which generally ranges from three months to two years. Revenue related to development contracts and other services is recognized as the related milestones are completed, or over time, as the work required to complete these milestones is completed. Revenue related to the sale of custom quantum computing components is recognized at a point in time upon acceptance by the customer.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of all direct and indirect cost associated with providing QCaaS offerings and development contracts and other services, including employee salaries and employee related costs, including compensation, bonuses, employee taxes and benefit costs of program management and personnel associated with the delivery of goods and services to customers. Cost of revenue also includes an allocation of facility costs, depreciation and amortization directly related to providing the QCaaS offerings and development contracts and other services. We expect cost of revenue to increase as we continue to expand on our operations, enhance our service offerings and expand our customer base.
Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, general and administrative and research and development expenses.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of compensation including stock-based compensation, employee benefits of sales and marketing employees, outside consultant fees, travel and marketing and promotion costs. We expect selling and marketing expenses to increase as we continue to expand on our operations, enhance our service offerings, expand our customer base, and implement new marketing strategies.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses include compensation, employee benefits, stock-based compensation, legal, insurance, finance administration and human resources, an allocation of facility costs (including leases),
 
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bad debt costs, professional service fees, and an allocation of other general overhead costs including depreciation and amortization to support our operations, which consists of operations other than associated with providing QCaaS offerings and development contracts and other services. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase as we continue to grow our business. We also expect to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development expenses include compensation, employee benefits, stock-based compensation, outside consultant fees, allocation of facility costs, depreciation and amortization, materials and components purchased for research and development. We expect research and development expenses to increase as we invest in the enhancement of our product offerings. We do not currently capitalize any research and development expenditures.
Provision for Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is recorded for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. We have recorded a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets.
 
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Results of Operations
Comparison of the Eleven Months Ended December 31, 2021, and Year Ended January 31, 2021
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods indicated:
 
    
11 Months Ended
   
Year Ended
             
    
December 31,
   
January 31,
             
    
2021
   
2021
   
$Change
   
% Change
 
    
( In thousands)
             
Revenue
   $ 8,196     $ 5,543     $ 2,653       48
Cost of revenue
     1,623       1,492       131       9
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
Total gross profit
     6,573       4,051       2,522       62
Operating expenses:
        
Research and development
     26,928       24,099       2,829       12
General and administrative
     11,299       13,158       (1,859     -14
Sales and marketing
     2,475       1,886       589       31
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
Total operating expenses
     40,702       39,143       1,559       4
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
Loss from operations
   $ (34,129   $ (35,092   $ 963       -3
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
Other (expense) income, net:
        
Gain on extinguishment of debt
     —         8,914       (8,914     nm  
Change in fair value of warrant liability
     (1,664     —         (1,664     nm  
Interest expense
     (2,465     (52     (2,413     nm  
Interest income
     10       60       (50     -83
Other income
     7       42       (35     -83
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
Total other (expense) income, net
     (4,112     8,964       (13,076  
Net loss before provision for income taxes
     (38,241     (26,128     (12,113  
Provision for income taxes
     —         —         —      
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
Net loss
   $ (38,241   $ (26,128   $ (12,113  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
The results of operations for the period ended December 31, 2021 relate to an
11-month
period as compared to the
12-month
period ended January 31, 2021. Some of the variances in operating results between these periods are primarily attributable to the fewer number of operating months in the current period ended December 31, 2021.
Revenue
Revenue increased $2.7 million, or 48%, to $8.2 million for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, up from $5.5 million for the year ended January 31, 2021. The period over period growth is primarily attributable to an increase of $2.7 million in revenue due to the addition of new development contracts with U.S. and U.K. government agencies during the 11 months ended December 31, 2021 combined with an expansion in scope of work for existing customers.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue increased $0.1 million, or 9%, to $1.6 million for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $1.5 million for the year ended January 31, 2021. The increase was mainly attributable to the increased
sub-contract
costs of $0.3 million offset by lower employee costs of $0.2 million due to the lower number of operating months in the current period ended December 31, 2021. The Company expects cost of revenue to increase as we continue to expand on our operations, enhance our service offerings, and expand our customer base.
 
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Operating Expenses
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses increased by $2.8 million, or 12%, to $26.9 million for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, from $24.1 million for the year ended January 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to a $1.6 million increase in payroll related costs in the 11 months ended December 31, 2021 due to an increase in headcount and the absence of cost savings in salaries, material and consultant costs experienced in the prior year due to stoppage of work as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic. Additionally, as a result of a continued investment in research and development activities, costs of direct materials, and information technology expenses increased by $1.2 million, and depreciation expense increased by $0.2 million during the 11 months ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended January 31, 2021. The increase was offset by a total $0.2 million reduction in other expenses as a result of
COVID-19
related severance payments in the prior comparable period. We expect research and development expenses to increase as we invest in the enhancement of our product offerings, including with respect to cost of building QPU fridges, quantum chip fabrication costs and general salaries and wages.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
Sales and marketing increased $0.6 million, or 31%, to $2.5 million for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021 from $1.9 million for the year ended January 31, 2021. The increase was primarily driven by a $0.9 million increase in payroll related costs for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended January 31, 2021 during which the Company experienced a reduction in headcount and lower material and consultant costs due to stoppage of work as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic, offset by a $0.3 million decrease in other expenses related to marketing and promotion which did not recur during the 11 months ended December 31, 2021. We expect selling and marketing expenses to increase as we continue to expand on our operations, enhance our service offerings, expand our customer base, and implement new marketing strategies, including with respect to customer acquisition efforts and general marketing campaigns.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses decreased by $1.9 million, or 14%, to $11.3 million for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, from $13.2 million for the year ended January 31, 2021. The decrease was attributable to a decrease in facility costs of $0.5 million as a result of subleasing out certain properties during the
11-month
period ended December 31, 2021, lower consultant costs of $0.5 million due to the hiring of full time employees, lower stock compensation expense of $0.4 million, lower corporate legal fees due to absence of
non-recurring
financing-related legal fees of $0.8 million incurred during the year ended January 31, 2021 and fewer operating months in the current period. These overall decreases were partially offset by an increase in headcount in the 11 months ended December 31, 2021 as a result of hiring senior executives and incentive compensation for executive employees of approximately $0.5 million and an increase of approximately $0.2 million related to the change in fair value of forward contract liabilities for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021. A discussion of change in fair value of forward contract agreement liability is included in Note 11 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021 included in elsewhere in this prospectus. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase as we continue to grow our business and as a result of increased costs operating as a public company, including expenses necessary to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange and related to compliance and reporting obligations pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, as well as higher expenses for general and director and officer insurance, investor relations, and professional services.
Other Income (Expense), net
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $2.5 million for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, from $52,000 for the year ended January 31, 2021. As we did not have interest bearing debt in the previous comparable period, the
 
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increase in expense was a result of a Loan and Security Agreement entered into during the eleven-month period ended December 31, 2021.
Gain on Extinguishment of Debt
Gain on extinguishment of $8.9 million was the result of the conversion of outstanding convertible notes in the year ended January 31, 2021, and as compared to the absence of such
one-off
event during the 11 months period ended December 31, 2021.
Change in Fair Value of Warrant Liabilities
A discussion of change in fair value of warranty liabilities is included in Note 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the eleven-month period ended December 31, 2021 included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We have incurred net losses since inception, and experienced negative cash flows from operations. As of December 31, 2021, we financed our operations primarily through the issuance of preferred stock, warrants and convertible notes and raised gross proceeds of approximately $203 million. During the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, we incurred net losses of $38.2 million. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $207.1 million. As of December 31, 2021, we had cash of $11.7 million. In connection with the closing of the Business Combination on March 2, 2022, we received gross proceeds of approximately $261.7 million. We expect to incur additional losses and higher operating expenses for the foreseeable future.
The exercise price of our public warrants and private placement warrants is $11.50 per warrant. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the trading price of our common stock. If the trading price for our common stock is less than $11.50 per share, we believe warrant holders will be unlikely to exercise their warrants. On April 20, 2022, the last reported sales price of our common stock was $5.90 per share and the last reported sales price of our public warrants was $0.9101 per warrant.
Excluding any potential cash proceeds from the exercise of warrants or Rigetti assumed warrants, we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents should be sufficient to meet our anticipated operating cash needs for at least the next 12 months. This estimate is based on our current business plan and expectations and assumptions in light of current macroeconomic conditions. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be wrong and could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect, and future capital requirements and the adequacy of available funds will depend on many factors, including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus.
Our primary uses of cash are to fund our operations as we continue to grow our business. We will require a significant amount of cash for expenditures as we invest in ongoing research and development and business operations. Until such time as we may generate significant revenue from sales of our development contracts and other services, we expect to finance our cash needs through borrowings under our Loan Agreement (as defined below) and equity or debt financings or other capital sources, including development contract revenue with government agencies and strategic partnerships. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be, or could be, diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our common stockholders.
In connection with the Extraordinary General Meeting and the Business Combination, holders of 22,915,538 of Supernova Class A ordinary shares, or 66.4% of the shares with redemption rights, exercised their
 
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right to redeem their shares for cash at a redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share, for an aggregate redemption amount of $229,155,380. The shares of common stock being offered for resale pursuant to this prospectus by the selling securityholders represent approximately 63.5% of shares outstanding of the Company as of March 31, 2022 (after giving effect to the issuance of shares upon exercise of outstanding public warrants, private placement warrants, Rigetti assumed warrants and options and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units).
Our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities could be significantly impacted by the resale of shares of common stock by selling securityholders pursuant to this prospectus which could result in a significant decline in the trading price of our common stock and potentially hinder our ability to raise capital at terms that are acceptable to us or at all. In addition, debt financing and equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, or substantially reduce our quantum computing development efforts. Our future capital requirements and the adequacy of available funds will depend on many factors, including those set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in this prospectus.
Loan Agreement
On March 10, 2021, Rigetti & Co, Inc., as borrower (the “Borrower”), entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (as amended, the “Loan Agreement”) with Trinity Capital Inc., as lender, for term loans with a principal amount of $12.0 million, bearing an interest rate of the greater of 7.5% plus the prime rate published by the Wall Street Journal or 11.0%. In addition, the Borrower is required to pay a final payment fee equal to 2.75% of the aggregate amount of all term loan advances. The term loans under the Loan Agreement are secured by all of the assets of the Borrower. The Loan Agreement contains customary representations, warranties and covenants, but does not include any financial covenants. The negative covenants include restrictions on the ability to incur indebtedness, pay dividends, execute fundamental change transactions, and other specified actions. In connection with entry into the Loan Agreement, the Borrower issued a warrant to purchase shares of Borrower’s common stock to Trinity.
On May 18, 2021, Borrower entered into a first amendment to the Loan Agreement (“First Amendment), which modified certain financial covenants, including an additional good faith deposit of $20,000 and adding a tranche B to the Loan Agreement in an aggregate amount of $15.0 million, consisting of two advances of $8.0 million and $7.0 million each. In connection with the First Amendment, the maturity date was modified to be the date equal to 48 months from the first payment date of each specific cash advance. In connection with the First Amendment, Borrower cancelled the initial warrants and issued a warrant to purchase 995,099 shares of Borrower’s common stock.
On October 21, 2021, Borrower entered into a second amendment to the Loan Agreement, which modified the date requiring Borrower to deliver evidence of completion of the PIPE Financing and execution of a definitive merger agreement with a special purpose acquisition company to October 31, 2021.
As of December 31, 2021, the total principal amount outstanding under Loan Agreement was approximately $27.0 million.
In January 2022, Borrower entered into the third amendment to the Loan Agreement (“Third Amendment”) to increase the debt commitment to $32.0 million. The amendment allows Borrower to draw an additional $5.0 million immediately with an additional $8.0 million to be drawn at the sole discretion of the lender. Borrower drew the additional $5.0 million upon signing the amendment. Other modifications per the amendment included an extension of the requirement to raise an additional $75 million of equity and a defined exit fee for the additional $5.0 million to be at 20% of the advanced funds under the Third Amendment. In
 
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conjunction with the Third Amendment, Borrower also guaranteed payment of all monetary amounts owed and performance of all covenants, obligations and liabilities.
The Loan Agreement is secured by a first-priority security interest in substantially all of the Borrower’s assets. In addition, in January 2022, Rigetti Holdings, Inc. entered into a Guaranty Agreement with Trinity Capital pursuant to which we guarantee all of the payment obligations of Borrower under the Loan Agreement.
As of the date of this prospectus, we are is in compliance with all covenants under the Loan Agreement.
Our cash commitments as of December 31, 2021 were primarily as follows:
 
    
Total
    
Short-Term
    
Long-Term
 
Financing obligations
   $ 24,791,032      $ 1,290,538      $ 23,500,494  
Operating lease obligations
     4,674,898        1,807,759        2,867,139  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
   $ 29,465,930      $ 3,098,297      $ 26,367,633  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Financing obligations consist of principal and unamortized financing costs related to the Loan Security Agreement. Operating lease obligations consist of obligations under
non-cancelable
operating leases for our offices and facilities. The cash requirements in the table above are associated with contracts that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including fixed or minimum services to be used, fixed, minimum or variable price provisions, and the approximate timing of the actions under the contracts. The table does not include obligations under agreements that we can cancel without a significant penalty.
Historical Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:
 
    
11 Months Ended
    
Year Ended
 
    
December 31,
    
January 31,
 
    
2021
    
2021
 
Net cash used in operating activities
   $ (29,043    $ (30,067
Net cash used in investing activities
     (7,008      (4,400
Net cash provided by financing activities
     25,582        56,289  
Cash Flows Used in Operating Activities
Our cash flows from operating activities are significantly affected by the growth of our business primarily related to research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative activities. Our operating cash flows are also affected by our working capital needs to support growth in personnel-related expenditures and fluctuations in accounts payable and other current assets and liabilities.
Net cash used in operating activities decreased by $1.0 million, or 3%, when comparing the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, to the year ended January 31, 2021. The decrease was primarily due to a shorter period of 11 months, higher revenue of $2.6 million earned and collected than the prior year, offset by an increase in employee related costs and temporary and permanent operational, administrative, and development expense totaling $1.6 million during the 11 months period ended December 31, 2021 as a result of gradually resuming operations following the temporary work stoppage in 2020 due to the
COVID-19
pandemic. As compared to the year ended January 31, 2021, we took cost reduction efforts including headcount reductions in compensation of employees at certain levels,
sub-leasing
of corporate offices and elimination of certain employee benefits in reaction to the
COVID-19
pandemic.
 
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Net cash used in operating activities during the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, was $29.0 million, resulting primarily from a net loss of $38.2 million, adjusted
for non-cash
charges of $4.7 million in depreciation, $1.8 million in stock-based compensation, $1.7 million in change of fair value of derivative warrant liabilities related to the Loan Agreement, $0.7 million in amortization of debt financing costs, and $0.2 million due to the change in fair value of forward contract liabilities.
These non-cash
charges were partially offset by adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities seen during the period. Changes in operating assets and liabilities was $0.2 million, which primarily consisted of an increase in accounts receivable of $1.06 million, an increase in prepaid and current assets of $0.31 million, a decrease in accounts payable of $0.39 million, and a decrease in other liabilities for $0.09 million, partially offset by an increase in deferred revenue of $0.49 million and an increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities of $1.55 million. The increase in deferred revenue was due to revenue not being recognized while billing has happened, the increase in accounts receivable and decrease in accounts payable was due to the timing of customer/vendor invoicing and payments. The increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets was due to advance payment for goods or services that were expected to be recognized or realized within the next 12 months period as of December 31, 2021. The increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities was due to increased research and development activity seen during the 11 months period ended December 31, 2021.
Net cash used in operating activities during the year ended January 31, 2021, was $30.1 million, resulting primarily from a net loss of $26.1 million, adjusted
for non-cash
charges of $4.3 million in depreciation, $2.6 million in stock-based compensation, and $8.9 million for
a one-time
gain on extinguishment of debt relating to the conversion of convertible notes.
These non-cash
charges were partially offset by adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities seen during the period. Changes in operating assets and liabilities was $1.9 million, which consisted of a decrease in deferred revenue and accounts payable of $1.7 million and $1.9 million, respectfully, partially offset by increases in accrued expenses and other liabilities of $1.8 million. The decrease in deferred revenue was due to revenue being recognized on contracts with customers, and the decrease in accounts payable was due to the timing of vendor invoicing and payments. The increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities was due to research and development activity seen during the year ended January 31, 2021.
Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities during the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, was $7.0 million, resulting solely from the additions of $7.0 million to property and equipment. Investments made into property and equipment during this period relate primarily to process computing equipment, QPU fridge equipment and development tools for our chip fabrication facility. Net cash used in investing activities during the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, increased by $2.6 million compared to what was seen in the year ended January 31, 2021, largely as a result of increased investment in research and development infrastructure, offset partially by reporting one month less of cash flows in the 11 months period ended December 31, 2021.
Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended January 31, 2021, was $4.4 million, representing additions of $4.4 million to property and equipment. Investments made into property and equipment during this period relate primarily to process computing equipment, fridge equipment and development tools for our chip fabrication facility.
Cash Flows provided by Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities during the 11 months ended December 31, 2021, was $25.6 million, reflecting proceeds from the issuance of debt and warrants of $27.0 million associated with the Loan Agreement, less cash payment on debt issuance cost of $0.2 million, proceeds from issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants for a total $0.4 million, offset by payment for deferred offering costs of $1.5 million associated with certain capitalized legal, accounting and other third-party fees that are directly associated with the
in-process
probable equity financings until such financings are consummated.
 
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Net cash provided by financing activities during the year ended January 31, 2021, was $56.3 million, reflecting proceeds from the issuance of convertible notes in the amount of $2.2 million, and net proceeds from issuance of preferred stock and warrants in the amount of $54 million as a result of the recapitalization that occurred in February of 2020. See Note 8 of our audited financial statements for eleven months ended December 31, 2021 and year ended January 31, 2021 included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We also make estimates and assumptions on revenue generated and reported expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
While our significant accounting policies are described in the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, we believe the following critical accounting policies are most important to understanding and evaluating our reported financial results.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. We use an estimated useful life of three years for furniture and other assets and information technology hardware (“IT hardware”), seven years for process equipment, and three to ten years for quantum computing fridges. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease-term or the estimated useful life of the related asset. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Upon disposition, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and the resulting gain or loss is reflected in other income (loss) in the consolidated statements of operations.
Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of an acquired business over the fair value of the underlying net tangible and intangible assets. We evaluate goodwill for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may not be recoverable. Triggering events that may indicate impairment include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in customer demand or business climate that could affect the value of goodwill or a significant decrease in expected cash flows. Goodwill is tested for impairment by comparing the reporting unit’s carrying value, including goodwill to the fair value of the reporting unit. We have one reporting unit and for our annual goodwill impairment test, we determined the fair value of our reporting unit based on our enterprise value. We may elect to utilize a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than our carrying value. If, after assessing the qualitative factors, we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than our carrying value, an impairment analysis will be performed. There was no goodwill impairment recorded for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021 and year ended January 31, 2021.
Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock Warrant Liability
Redeemable convertible preferred stock warrants are classified as liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet. The warrants are subject to remeasurement at each consolidated balance sheet date, and any change in fair value is recognized as a component of other income (expense). The fair value of these warrants is
 
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determined by us based on the Black-Scholes option-pricing valuation model, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the estimated fair value of the underlying redeemable convertible preferred stock at the valuation measurement date, the remaining contractual term of the warrant, risk-free interest rates, expected dividends and expected volatility of the price of the underlying redeemable convertible preferred stock. In conjunction with the Business Combination, we will adjust the liability for changes in fair value of whereby all redeemable convertible preferred stock warrants will be converted into warrants to purchase common stock and, accordingly, the liability will be reclassified into stockholders’ deficit.
Prior to the year ended January 31, 2020, we had issued a warrant to acquire 14,958 shares of
series B-2
redeemable convertible preferred stock in conjunction with a revenue contract (see “—Revenue Recognition” for additional details). The series
B-2
redeemable convertible preferred stock warrants had a
10-year
contractual term and an exercise price of $0.000001 per share. We had classified the series
B-2
redeemable convertible preferred stock warrants as liabilities due to the contingently redeemable nature of the underlying
series B-2
redeemable convertible preferred stock. In January 2020, the holder, pursuant to the revenue contract, exercised the
series B-2
redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant in full, with the company receiving the nominal cash exercise price. As part of the exercise, we estimated that the fair value of the series
B-2
redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant was $122,000 (no change in fair value identified), and this fair value was reclassified as a component of the carrying value of the
series B-2
redeemable convertible preferred stock.
Derivative Warrant Liabilities
We do not use derivative instruments to hedge exposures to cash flow, market, or foreign currency risks. We evaluate all of our financial instruments, including issued stock purchase warrants, to determine if such instruments are derivatives or contain features that qualify as embedded derivatives, pursuant to ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging” (“ASC 815”) at the initial recognition.
Certain of the warrants issued and outstanding are recognized as derivative liabilities in accordance with ASC 815. Accordingly, we recognize the warrant instruments as liabilities at fair value and adjust the instruments to fair value at each reporting period until exercised. The fair value of the warrant liabilities issued were initially measured using the Black-Scholes model and will be subsequently remeasured at each reporting period with changes recorded as a component of other income in our consolidated statement of operations. Derivative warrant liabilities are classified as
non-current
as their liquidation is not reasonably expected to require the use of current assets or require the creation of current liabilities.
We issued a total of 995,099 common stock warrants in conjunction with the Loan Agreement in 2021. We utilized Black-Scholes model to determine grant fair value of the warrants which was approximately $2,690,574 which was recorded as part of the Debt Issuance Cost. The change in fair value of the warrants from issuance date through December 31, 2021 of $1,664,133 was driven primarily by an increase in the fair value of our stock that occurred as a result of the Business Combination. We recorded a total loss of $1,664,133 to Change in Fair Value of Warrant Liability as a component of other income in the consolidated statement of operations for the 11 months ended December 31, 2021.
The outstanding common stock warrants were recognized as liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet and were measured at their inception date fair value using the Black-Scholes model and will be subsequently remeasured at each reporting period with changes recorded as a component of other income in our consolidated statement of operations. We did not have any common stock warrants classified as liabilities as of January 31, 2021.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is primarily derived from our contracts that provide access to our quantum computing systems, collaborative research services, professional services, and the sale of custom quantum computing
 
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components. Access to our quantum computing systems can be purchased as a quantum computing subscription, or on a usage basis for a specified quantity of hours. Revenue related to subscription-based access to our quantum computing systems (i.e, quantum computing subscriptions) is recognized on a ratable basis over the subscription term, which can range from three months to two years. Revenue related to usage-based access to our quantum computing systems is recognized over time as the systems are accessed using an output method based on compute credit hours expended. Revenue related to collaborative research services and professional services is recognized over time as the services are provided using an input measure based on actual labor hours incurred to date relative to total estimated labor hours needed to complete the program or total contracted hours over the program period. Revenue related to the sale of custom quantum computing components is recognized at a point in time upon acceptance by the customer.
Our fixed fee development contracts vary in term from one to five years, with the majority of such contracts having a term of 18 months to two years. When establishing the pricing for our fixed fee arrangements, we determine the pricing based on estimated costs to complete and expected margins taking into account the scope of work outlined within the contract being evaluated and our historical experience with similar services and contracts. Actual costs incurred over the period in which these contracts are fulfilled could vary from these estimates and therefore, these estimates are subject to uncertainty. On a quarterly basis, management reviews the progress with respect to each contract and our related milestones and evaluates whether any changes in estimates exists. As a result of the quarterly reviews, revisions in the estimated effort to complete the contract are reflected in the period in which the change is identified. These revisions may impact the overall progress related to transfer of control and therefore, result in either increases or decreases in revenues, as well as, increase or decreases in fulfillment costs and contract margins. In accordance, with ASC No. 250, Accounting Changes and Error Corrections, any changes in estimates are reflected in our consolidated statements of operations in the period in which the circumstances that give rise to the revision become known to the management. To date, we have not experienced any changes in estimates that have had a material impact on our results from operations or financial position.
When our contracts with customers contain multiple performance obligations, the transaction price is allocated on a relative standalone selling price basis to each performance obligation. We typically determine standalone selling price based on observable selling prices of our products and services. In instances where standalone selling price is not directly observable, standalone selling price is determined using information that may include market conditions and other observable inputs. Standalone selling price is typically established as a range. In situations in which the stated contract price for a performance obligation is outside of the applicable standalone selling price range and has a different pattern of transfer to the customer than the other performance obligations in the contract, we will reallocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price of each.
The transaction price is the amount of consider